African Wild Dog Defense

James Lee
• Saturday, 27 November, 2021
• 33 min read

Its scientific name, Lyon ictus, means “painted wolf,” referring to the animal's irregular, mottled coat, which features patches of red, black, brown, white, and yellow fur. These days, African wild dogs typically roam the open plains and sparse woodlands of sub-Saharan Africa.

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Packs hunt antelopes and will also tackle much larger prey, such as wildebeests, particularly if their quarry is ill or injured. They are also threatened by shrinking space to roam in their African home as well as their susceptibility to diseases like rabies and canine distemper.

The International Union for Conservation of Nature reports that the population level of African wild dogs fluctuates but is in a likely irreversible decline, which is why it considers this species to be endangered. African wild dogs are among the many species that benefit from the creation of protected wildlife corridors that help connect their increasingly fragmented habitats.

Throughout Africa, wild dogs have been shot and poisoned by farmers who often blame them when a leopard or hyena kills livestock. The principal threat to this species is habitat fragmentation, which increases human-wildlife conflict and localized, small population extinction due to epidemic disease.

As human populations expand, leading to agriculture, settlements, and roads, wild dogs are losing the spaces in which they were once able to roam freely. In the Hamburg landscape, AWF, with funding from the U.S. Agency for International Development and the Dutch government employed 12 scouts from five neighboring communities.

By providing access to new employment, AWF is able to weave conservation and economic opportunity together to incentivize wild dog protection. Wild dogs also have a large range of vocalizations that include a short bark of alarm, a rallying howl, and a bell-like contact call that can be heard over long distances.

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The hunting members of the pack return to the den where they regurgitate meat for the nursing female and pups. When pack numbers are reduced, hunting is not as efficient, and adults may not bring back sufficient food for the pups.

They hunt for a wide variety of prey, including gazelles and other antelopes, warthogs, wildebeest calves, rats, and birds. Like most predators, they play an important role in eliminating sick and weak animals, thereby helping maintain the natural balance and improve prey species.

Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalian Order: Carnivora Family: Candidate Subfamily: Canine Tribe: Canine Genus: Lyon Species: Binomial name Lyon ictus Africanwilddog range The Africanwilddog (Lyon ictus), also called the painted dog, or Cape hunting dog, is a canine native to sub-Saharan Africa. It is the largest indigenous canine in Africa, and the only member of the genus Lyon, which is distinguished from Cans by dentition highly specialized for a hypercarnivorous diet, and a lack of dewclaws.

It is estimated that about 6,600 adults including 1,400 mature individuals live in 39 subpopulations that are all threatened by habitat fragmentation, human persecution and outbreaks of diseases. The Africanwilddog is a highly social animal, living in packs with separate dominance hierarchies for males and females.

Uniquely among social carnivores, the females rather than the males disperse from the natal pack once sexually mature. The species is a specialized diurnal hunter of antelopes, which it catches by chasing them to exhaustion.

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Like other can ids, the Africanwilddog regurgitates food for its young, but this action is also extended to adults, to the point of being central to their social life. Some conservation organizations are promoting the name 'painted wolf' as a way of rebranding the species, as wild dog has several negative connotations that could be detrimental to its image.

The earliest written reference to the species appears to be from Option, who wrote of the thou, a hybrid between the wolf and leopard, which resembles the former in shape and the latter. Solinus's Collet serum memorabilia from the third century AD describes a multicolored wolf-like animal with a mane native to Ethiopia.

The species was first described scientifically in 1820 by Conrad Terminal, after having examined a specimen taken from the coast of Mozambique. He named the animal Hyena dicta, erroneously classifying it as a species of hyena.

It was later recognized as a candid by Joshua Brookes in 1827, and renamed Lyon tricolor. The root word of Lyon is the Greek (lyrics), meaning “wolf-like”.

Phylogenetic relationships between the extant wolf-like clade of can ids based on nuclear DNA sequence data taken from the cell nucleus, except for the Himalayan wolf, based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. The Africanwilddog possesses the most specialized adaptations among the can ids for coat color, diet, and for pursuing its prey through its curatorial (running) ability.

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It possesses a graceful skeleton, and the loss of the first digit on its forefeet increases its stride and speed. This adaptation allows it to pursue prey across open plains for long distances.

The teeth are generally carnassial -shaped, and its premolars are the largest relative to body size of any living carnivora except for the spotted hyena. The Africanwilddog exhibits one of the most varied coat colors among the mammals.

Individuals differ in patterns and colors, indicating a diversity of the underlying genes. The purpose of these coat patterns may be an adaptation for communication, concealment, or temperature regulation.

In 2019, a study indicated that the Lyon lineage diverged from Con and Cans 1.7 million years ago through this suite of adaptations, and these occurred at the same time as large ungulates (its prey) diversified. The oldest L. ictus fossil dates back to 200,000 years ago and was found in Harmonic Cave, Israel.

The evolution of the Africanwilddog is poorly understood due to the scarcity of fossil finds. Some authors consider the extinct Cans subgenus Xenophon as ancestral to both the genus Lyon and the genus Con, :p149 which lived throughout Eurasia and Africa from the Early Pleistocene to the early Middle Pleistocene.

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The species Cans (Xenophon) falconer shared the Africanwilddog's absent first metacarpal (dewclaw), though its dentition was still relatively unspecialized. Falconeri' s missing metacarpal was a poor indication of phylogenetic closeness to the Africanwilddog and the dentition was too different to imply ancestry.

Another ancestral candidate is the Plio-Pleistocene L. senora of South Africa on the basis of distinct accessory cusps on its premolars and anterior accessory cuspids on its lower premolars. L. Sekowei had not yet lost the first metacarpal absent in L. ictus and was more robust than the modern species, having 10% larger teeth.

In 2018, whole genome sequencing was used to compare the whole (Con alpines) with the African hunting dog. Today, their ranges are remote from each other; however, during the Pleistocene era the whole could be found as far west as Europe.

The study proposes that the whole's distribution may have once included the Middle East, from where it may have admixed with the African hunting dog in North Africa. However, there is no evidence of the whole having existed in the Middle East or North Africa.

Subspecies Image and description Synonyms Cape wild dog, L. p. ictus Terminal, 1820The nominate subspecies inhabiting the Cape of Good Hope is characterized by the large amount of orange-yellow fur overlapping the black, the partially yellow backs of the ears, the mostly yellow underparts and a number of whitish hairs on the throat mane. Those in Mozambique are distinguished by the almost equal development of yellow and black on both the upper- and underparts of the body, as well as having less white fur than the Cape form.

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Its color closely approaches that of the Cape wild dog, with the yellow parts being buff. East African and Southern Africanwilddog populations were once thought to be genetically distinct, based on a few samples.

More recent studies with a larger number of samples showed that extensive intermixing has occurred between East African and Southern African populations in the past. Some unique nuclear and mitochondrial alleles are found in Southern African and northeastern African populations, with a transition zone encompassing Botswana, Zimbabwe and southeastern Tanzania between the two.

The West Africanwilddog population may possess a unique haplotype, thus possibly constituting a truly distinct subspecies. L. Pictus skull (left) compared with that of C. lupus (right): Note the former's shorter muzzle and fewer molars. The Africanwilddog is the bulkiest and most solidly built of African can ids.

Body weight of adults range from 18 to 36 kg (40 to 79 lb). By body mass, they are only outsized amongst other extant can ids by the gray wolf species complex.

Its dentition also differs from that of Cans by the degeneration of the last lower molar, the narrowness of the canines and proportionately large premolars, which are the largest relative to body size of any carnivore other than hyenas. The heel of the lower carnassial M1 is crested with a single, blade-like cusp, which enhances the shearing capacity of the teeth, thus the speed at which prey can be consumed.

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This feature, termed “trenchant heel”, is shared with two other can ids: the Asian whole and the South American bush dog. The fur of the Africanwilddog differs significantly from that of other can ids, consisting entirely of stiff bristle-hairs with no underfur.

It gradually loses its fur as it ages, with older individuals being almost naked. Color variation is extreme, and may serve in visual identification, as African wild dogs can recognize each other at distances of 50–100 m. Some geographic variation is seen in coat color, with northeastern African specimens tending to be predominantly black with small white and yellow patches, while southern African ones are more brightly colored, sporting a mix of brown, black and white coats.

Much of the species' coat patterning occurs on the trunk and legs. Little variation in facial markings occurs, with the muzzle being black, gradually shading into brown on the cheeks and forehead.

A black line extends up the forehead, turning blackish-brown on the back of the ears. The tail is usually white at the tip, black in the middle and brown at the base.

These coat patterns can be asymmetrical, with the left side of the body often having different markings from that of the right. Play fighting after a kill, Oswald Kalahari Reserve, South Africa Africanwilddog has very strong social bonds, stronger than those of sympatric lions and spotted hyenas ; thus, solitary living and hunting are extremely rare in the species.

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It lives in permanent packs consisting of two to 27 adults and yearling pups. However, larger packs have been observed and temporary aggregations of hundreds of individuals may have gathered in response to the seasonal migration of vast springbok herds in Southern Africa.

The species differs from most other social species in that males remain in the natal pack, while females disperse (a pattern also found in primates such as gorillas, chimpanzees, and red colobuses). Although arguably the most social candid, the species lacks the elaborate facial expressions and body language found in the gray wolf, likely because of the Africanwilddog's less hierarchical social structure.

Furthermore, while elaborate facial expressions are important for wolves in re-establishing bonds after long periods of separation from their family groups, they are not as necessary to African wild dogs, which remain together for much longer periods. During estrus, the female is closely accompanied by a single male, which keeps other members of the same sex at bay.

The ovulatory tie characteristic of mating in most can ids has been reported to be absent or very brief (less than one minute) in Africanwilddog, possibly an adaptation to the prevalence of larger predators in its environment. The gestation period lasts 69–73 days, with the interval between each pregnancy being 12–14 months typically.

The Africanwilddog produces more pups than any other candid, with litters containing around six to 16 pups, with an average of 10, thus indicating that a single female can produce enough young to form a new pack every year. Because the amount of food necessary to feed more than two litters would be impossible to acquire by the average pack, breeding is strictly limited to the dominant female, which may kill the pups of subordinates.

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After giving birth, the mother stays close to the pups in the den, while the rest of the pack hunts. She typically drives away pack members approaching the pups until the latter are old enough to eat solid food at three to four weeks of age.

The pups are weaned at the age of five weeks, when they are fed regurgitated meat by the other pack members. By seven weeks, the pups begin to take on an adult appearance, with noticeable lengthening in the legs, muzzle, and ears.

Once the pups reach the age of eight to 10 weeks, the pack abandons the den and the young follow the adults during hunts. The youngest pack members are permitted to eat first on kills, a privilege which ends once they become yearlings.

Packs of African wild dogs have a high ratio of males to females. This is a consequence of the males mostly staying with the pack whilst female offspring disperse and is supported by a changing sex-ratio in consecutive litters.

Those born to maiden bitches contain a higher proportion of males, second litters are half-and-half and subsequent litters biased towards females with this trend increasing as females get older. As a result, the earlier litters provide stable hunters whilst the higher ratio of dispersal amongst the females stops a pack from getting too big.

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Africanwilddog populations in the Okaying Delta have been observed “rallying” before they set out to hunt. These sneezes are characterized by a short, sharp exhale through the nostrils.

When members of dominant mating pairs sneeze first, the group is much more likely to depart. Researchers assert that wild dogs in Botswana, “use a specific vocalization (the sneeze) along with a variable quorum response mechanism in the decision-making process ”.

Inbreeding avoidance by mate selection is characteristic of the species and has important potential consequences for population persistence. Inbreeding is likely avoided because it leads to the expression of recessive deleterious alleles.

It and the cheetah are the only primarily diurnal African large predators. The Africanwilddog hunts by approaching prey silently, then chasing it in a pursuit clocking at up to 66 km/h (41 mph) for 10 to 60 minutes.

The average chase typically only goes as far as 2 km, during which time the prey animal, if large, is repeatedly bitten on the legs, belly, and rump until it stops running, while smaller prey is simply pulled down and torn apart. The African wild dogs have a higher success rate when it comes to killing prey even though they are smaller than lions and leopards.

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Hunting strategies of the Africanwilddog differ depending on prey species, with wildebeest being rushed at to panic the herd and isolate a vulnerable individual, whereas territorial antelope species, which defend themselves by running in wide circles, are captured by cutting off their escape routes. Male wild dogs usually perform the task of grabbing dangerous prey, such as warthogs, by the nose.

Small prey such as rodents, hares and birds are hunted singly, with dangerous prey such as cane rats and porcupines being killed with a quick and well-placed bite to avoid injury. Small prey is eaten entirely, while large animals are stripped of their meat and organs, with the skin, head, and skeleton left intact.

The Africanwilddog is a fast eater, with a pack being able to consume a Thomson's gazelle in 15 minutes. In the wild, the species' consumption rate is of 1.2–5.9 kg (2.6–13.0 lb) per Africanwilddog a day, with one pack of 17–43 individuals in East Africa having been recorded to kill three animals per day on average.

Unlike most social predators, it will regurgitate food for adult as well as young family members. Pups old enough to eat solid food are given first priority at kills, eating even before the dominant pair; subordinate adult dogs help feed and protect the pups.

Hunting success varies with prey type, vegetation cover and pack size, but African wild dogs tend to be very successful, often with greater than 60% of their chases ending in a kill, sometimes up to 90%. The Africanwilddog is mostly found in savanna and arid zones, generally avoiding forested areas.

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This preference is likely linked to the animal's hunting habits, which require open areas that do not obstruct vision or impede pursuit. Nevertheless, it will travel through scrub, woodland and montane areas in pursuit of prey.

At least one record exists of a pack being sighted on the summit of Mount Kilimanjaro. A species-wide study showed that by preference, where available, five species were the most regularly selected prey, namely the greater kudzu, Thomson's gazelle, impala, bush buck and blue wildebeest.

More specifically, in East Africa, its most common prey is Thomson's gazelle, while in Central and Southern Africa, it targets impala, reed buck, KOB, lech we and springbok. Its diet is not restricted to these animals, though, as it also hunts warthog, origin, dewier, water buck, Grant's gazelle, ostrich, calves of African buffalo and smaller prey such as diked, hares, spring hares, insects and cane rats.

Staple prey sizes are usually between 15 and 200 kg (33 and 441 lb), though some local studies put upper prey sizes as variously 90 to 135 kg (198 to 298 lb). In the case of larger species such as kudzu and wildebeest, calves are largely but not exclusively targeted.

However, certain packs in the Serengeti specialized in hunting adult plains zebras weighing up to 240 kg (530 lb) quite frequently. Another study claimed that some prey taken by wild dogs could weigh up to 289 kg (637 lb).

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One pack was recorded to occasionally prey on bat-eared foxes, rolling on the carcasses before eating them. African wild dogs rarely scavenge, but have on occasion been observed to appropriate carcasses from spotted hyenas, leopards, cheetahs and lions, as well as animals caught in snares.

In East Africa, African wild dogs in packs of 17 to 43 eat 1.7 kg (3.7 lb) of meat on average each day. Lions dominate African wild dogs and are a major source of mortality for both adults and pups.

Population densities of African wild dogs are low in areas where lions are more abundant. One pack reintroduced into Elisha National Park was destroyed by lions.

As with other large predators killed by lion prides, the dogs are usually killed and left uneaten by the lions, indicating the competitive rather than predatory nature of the larger species' dominance. However, a few cases have been reported of old and wounded lions falling prey to African wild dogs.

One pack in the Okaying in March 2016 was photographed by safari guides waging “an incredible fight” against a lioness that attacked a subadult dog at an impala kill, which forced the lioness to retreat, although the subadult dog died. Spotted hyenas are important kleptoparasites and follow packs of African wild dogs to appropriate their kills.

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They typically inspect areas where African wild dogs have rested and eat any food remains they find. When approaching African wild dogs at a kill, solitary hyenas approach cautiously and attempt to take off with a piece of meat unnoticed, though they may be mobbed in the attempt.

When operating in groups, spotted hyenas are more successful in pirating Africanwilddog kills, though the latter's greater tendency to assist each other puts them at an advantage against spotted hyenas, which rarely work cooperatively. Cases of African wild dogs scavenging from spotted hyenas are rare.

Beyond piracy, cases of interspecific killing of African wild dogs by spotted hyenas are documented. African wild dogs are apex predators, normally only fatally losing contests to larger social carnivores, although anecdotally Nile crocodiles may opportunistically and rarely prey upon a wild dog.

African wild dogs once ranged across much of sub-Saharan Africa, being absent only in the driest desert regions and lowland forests. Country Status Distribution Algeria Although historically present, L. ictus is probably locally extinct, though it may exist as a relict population in the south.

The species once occurred in the Founder Arab Mountains, but has disappeared, likely due to trapping and poisoning by Tuareg tribesmen. In 1992 hunters in the coastal area of Western Sahara described a wild dog that hunts in packs, although the identity of this animal is unconfirmed.

The species is faring poorly in most of West Africa, with the only potentially viable population occurring in Senegal's Niokolo-Koba National Park. African wild dogs are occasionally sighted in other parts of Senegal, as well as in Guinea and Mali.

Country Status Distribution Benin L. ictus is most likely locally extinct, with a survey taken in 1990 indicating that locals thought that the species' continued survival in the country extremely unlikely. PARC W might hold the country's remaining L. ictus populations, though they were considered either declining or locally extinct in 1988.

Burkina Faso L. ictus is likely locally extinct, and widespread poverty prevents effective wildlife protection, despite the species' protected legal status. The last sightings of the animal occurred in 1985 in the Naming Game Ranch.

It might still occur in the ARL National Park and the Come Province, but in low numbers. Gambia The most recent sighting occurred in 1995, on the northern border with Senegal.

Ghana Although L. ictus is legally protected, it is probably locally extinct, as poaching is rampant and traditional attitudes toward predators are hostile. Although no recent sightings have been made, the species may still occur in Boo and Dig ya National Parks.

Hunters have reported the presence of L. ictus in the Kyoto National Park, though the species is probably rare there. The most recent reports of the species include a sighting in 1991 along the Sankara River and the deaths of three cows in 1996 in the Niamey Forest Class.

the Ivory Coast Very few sightings have been made and the majority of the public has not heard of the species. The species may still occur in Come National Park (where it was last sighted in the late 1980s) and Marabout National Park (where the last sightings occurred during the 1970s).

Liberia Liberian folklore makes no mention of L. ictus, thus indicating that the species has probably never been common in the area. Although sighted in the Forest Classes de la Maya in 1959, the species was notably absent during a ground survey in the 1980s.

The species may still occur in the south and west of the country in the border regions with Senegal and Guinea. Niger The species is almost certainly locally extinct, having been the subject of an extermination campaign during the 1960s.

Although legally protected, L. ictus specimens were still shot by game guards as recently as 1979. Even if still present, the species' chances of survival are still low, due to regular droughts and loss of natural prey.

L. ictus may still be present in low numbers in PARC W, in the extreme north and the SIRPA region. Factors inhibiting the species' recovery include a lack of effective protection and the drastic reduction of its prey.

L. ictus may still persist in low numbers in Gash aka Gum ti National Park, which is fairly close to Cameroon's Faro National Park, where the species still occurs, though no sightings were made in 1982–1986. L. Pictus is occasionally reported in Chingurmi-Duguma National Park, with the most recent sighting having occurred in 1995.

It is likely locally extinct in Kanji National Park and Borg Game Reserve, as poaching is intense and the species has not been sighted since the 1980s. It is also extinct in Ankara National Park, with the last sighting having taken place in 1978.

One confirmed sighting of a lone individual occurred in 1991 in the Lame Burma Game Reserve. This population is monitored and studied by the IUCN's Candid Specialist Group, in conjunction with Senegal's Lianne Fund.

From 2011 to 2013, conservationists documented the continuing existence of wild dogs in Niccolo Kobe National Park in Senegal with photos and tracks of wild dogs. L. ictus may have once been present in the northern savannah-woodland areas, as natives there have names for the species, and some unconfirmed sightings were made in the 1980s.

A small population may inhabit Outamba-Kilimi National Park, though only one unconfirmed sighting has been recorded. Togo Despite receiving partial protection, L. ictus is probably extinct, and the country is severely lacking in prey species.

It may occur in Fatal Madrassa National Park, though in very low numbers. Rumors exist of some small L. ictus packs taking refuge in caves on the mountain-sides of Mazama, Away, and Bid.

The only viable populations occur in the Central African Republic, Chad and especially Cameroon. Country Status Distribution Cameroon The status of the Africanwilddog in Cameroon is uncertain, though three packs occur in the north of the country, thus making it the only possible refuge for the species in Central Africa, along with those present in CAR and southern Chad.

Nevertheless, attitudes towards the species remain negative, with 25 specimens having been killed by professional hunters in northern Cameroon in 1991–1992, with a government quota of 65 specimens during the December 1995 – May 1996 hunting season. The species is still regularly sighted in and around Faro National Park, where four packs were recorded in 1997.

The Africanwilddog was sighted several times in and around Bound NIDA National Park in 1993. A recent 2012 study in the Before Complex in northern Cameroon did not find any wild dogs present.

Central African Republic Although afforded total legal protection, CAR's Africanwilddog population has an uncertain future, though it is not far from the larger Cameroonian population. It is rare in Manovo-Gounda St. Flores National Park, with sightings having been reported as recently as 1992.

Between 2012 and 2017, wild dog populations in the CAR declined due to direct killing by pastoralists. The southern part of the country may form an important link between Africanwilddog populations in Cameroon and CAR.

The species was already considered rare in the CUADI Rimé-Ouadi Achim Fauna Reserve during the 1980s and has not been sighted since. No recent records have placed the species in Amanda National Park and the Siniaka-Minia Fauna Reserve, though they once occurred in reasonable numbers during the 1980s.

The species may have once inhabited Ocala National Park, though it occurred largely in unprotected areas, where it preyed on livestock and was subsequently exterminated by local pastoralists. Democratic Republic of the Congo Although the DRC once held a healthy Africanwilddog population, it has probably been extirpated in the late 1990s.

The most recent sighting occurred in 1986 in UEMOA National Park. No records exist of the species on the island of Bioko and Rio Mini.

The species was apparently once present in the Petite Loan go National Park, but has not been sighted in years. A pack of seven dogs from Port Lymph Wild Animal Park will be reintroduced to PARC de la Leeds, where they were last seen over 25 years ago, in December 2019.

The Africanwilddog's range in East Africa is patchy, having been eradicated in Uganda and much of Kenya. The species may still occur in small numbers in southern Somalia, and it is almost certainly extinct in Rwanda, Burundi and Eritrea.

Nevertheless, it remains somewhat numerous in southern Tanzania, particularly in the Serous Game Reserve and Miami National Park, both of which are occupied by what could be Africa's largest Africanwilddog population. The only protected area, Day Forest National Park, is unlikely to support the species.

The species has been extirpated in three national parks, though it still occurs in the south of the country. The species was once occasionally recorded in and around Pamela National Park, though the last sighting occurred in 1987.

It occasionally occurs in Bale Mountains National Park, though it is hampered by rabies and persecution by shepherds. Sporadic sightings have also occurred in the Awash and Necessary National Parks.

Kenya Although widespread, the Africanwilddog receives only partial legal protection and primarily occurs in unprotected areas, with no high population densities. Africanwilddog numbers have declined, and it has become locally extinct in many areas, with only 15 packs occurring throughout the entire country as of 1997.

Local attitudes towards it are poor, and it is frequently shot in livestock areas. Vagrant individuals are sometimes sighted at the border with Sudan, as well as in the northeast, around Mandela, Major County, and Arabic National Park.

It was twice sighted outside Nairobi National Park, though it is regularly shot and snared there. A few packs were present in Waikiki until 2017 when widespread illegal encroachment by cattle herders led to the animals being shot, or affected by disease introduced by domestic dogs.

Modern Rwanda's overly high human population makes the country unsuitable for future recolonization and a reintroduction project in 1989 was thwarted by the onset of the Rwandan Civil War. The species once occurred in high numbers in Manager National Park, to the point of it being known as Le PARC aux Lyons.

Somalia The ongoing Somali Civil War has made the outlook of the Africanwilddog very poor in the country, with deforestation, poaching, drought and overgrazing preventing the species from recovering, despite it being legally protected. Recent sightings of the Africanwilddog have occurred in 2015 and 2016 in Istanbuul-Kudaayo and Manaranni-Odow, and during the rainy season in Hola, Major, Mani, and Maharani.

One pack was sighted in 1994 in Lag Banana National Park, which may be the best stronghold for the species in Somalia. The species once occurred in the Sued, though updates are lacking, and it is not afforded any legal protection in the area.

Although rare in the north, the south offers ideal habitat, as large tsetse fly populations prevent widespread human colonization. The Serous Game Reserve and probably Ru aha National Park represent the best strongholds for the species in all of Africa.

The species is common in the Serous Game Reserve, where about 880 adult specimens were estimated in 1997. It is also present in neighboring Miami National Park and has been sighted in other nearby areas.

The Africanwilddog may no longer occur in Serengeti National Park, with only 34 individuals being counted in late 1990. Vagrant specimens occasionally enter the country via Tanzania and South Sudan.

A survey taken in 1982–1992 showed that the species was likely extirpated in Uganda, though sightings in some scattered areas may indicate that the Africanwilddog is recolonizing the country. Single individuals and small packs were sighted in Murchison Falls National Park and were seen several times in the Northern Karaoke Controlled Hunting Area in 1994.

Southern Africa contains numerous viable Africanwilddog populations, one of which encompasses northern Botswana, northeastern Namibia and western Zimbabwe. In South Africa, around 400 specimens occur in the country's Kruger National Park.

Zambia holds two large populations, one in Value National Park and another in the Luanda Valley. Country Status Distribution Angola Although the Africanwilddog is legally protected, the Angolan Civil War prevented the collection of data and there have been only a few reports of the species since 1990.

The species was once found throughout Angola's protected areas, though it went into decline during the mid-1970s. It may still occur in the Candy Cuban go Province, where vagrants may arrive from Zambia and Namibia, though the population is probably unviable.

In 2020, researchers found unequivocal evidence that wild dogs are resident and reproducing in Vicar National Park and are present (but possibly only transient) in western Candy Cuban go province. Nevertheless, it receives only partial protection and farmers are permitted to shoot it in defense of livestock.

The species' most important stronghold in Botswana is Thailand, which includes the Okaying Delta, the More mi Game Reserve and Chose National Park. Malawi Although rare, the Africanwilddog is legally protected and may only be taken by government hunters and private citizens with ministerial permits.

The species was regularly reported in Sung National Park in the 1990s, where there were 18 sightings in 1991 alone. It occurs in low numbers in Nina National Park and the Wave Wildlife Reserve.

The species underwent a rapid reduction in numbers after the Mozambican War of Independence in 1975, reaching the verge of extinction by 1986. Nevertheless, it regularly enters the country via Kruger National Park in neighboring South Africa.

The Africanwilddog was once widely distributed in the remote and protected areas of the country, though it was declared extinct in western Manila, endangered in Pete and Zambezi and extinct in Kampala. The species still occurred in the Ovum and Legend River regions in 1986 and a pack with pups was sighted in Ca hora Bass in 1996.

In 2018, 14 individuals from South Africa were reintroduced to Gringos National Park. The species occurs in three regions: the Northern Cape, Kruger National Park and KwaZulu-Natal.

The Kruger population numbers at around 375–450 specimens, though they face pressure from lions and spotted hyenas, and are sometimes shot or snared outside the park boundaries. This population has fluctuated since the reintroduction and local attitudes towards it vary from hostile to favorable.

The Africanwilddog has only been sighted once, when a pack was observed to kill a Lesbos in December 1992, staying in the area for two weeks before disappearing. L. Pictus remains widespread and occurs in most protected areas, which are large and hold suitable habitat and prey.

The species was present in declining numbers in Using Plain National Park in 1988 and have not been reported there since. Sightings have occurred in Sum bu National Park, where the species is likely declining due to disease.

Small numbers were recorded in North Luanda National Park in 1994 and are occasionally seen in the adjoining Mustang and Limb Game Management Areas. It is often sighted in South Luanda National Park, where it was previously declining due to an anthrax outbreak.

The Africanwilddog is primarily threatened by habitat fragmentation, which results in human–wildlife conflict, transmission of infectious diseases and high mortality rates. Rangers confiscated large amounts of poison and found multiple lion cadavers in the camps of livestock herders.

They were accompanied by armed merchants who also engage in poaching large herbivores, sale of bush meat and trading lion skins. Artistic depictions of African wild dogs are prominent on cosmetic palettes and other objects from Egypt's predynastic period, likely symbolizing order over chaos, as well as the transition between the wild (represented by the African golden wolf) and the domestic (represented by the dog).

By the dynastic period, Africanwilddog illustrations became much less represented, and the animal's symbolic role was largely taken over by the wolf. According to ENSO Pittman, the people of Ethiopia's Ti gray Region believed that injuring a wild dog with a spear would result in the animal dipping its tail in its wounds and flicking the blood at its assailant, causing instant death.

For this reason, Tigress shepherds would repel wild dog attacks with pebbles rather than with edged weapons. The Africanwilddog also plays a prominent role in the mythology of Southern Africa's San people.

In one story, the wild dog is indirectly linked to the origin of death, as the hare is cursed by the moon to be forever hunted by African wild dogs after the hare rebuffs the moon's promise to allow all living things to be reborn after death. Another story has the god Can taking revenge on the other gods by sending a group of men transformed into African wild dogs to attack them, though who won the battle is never revealed.

The San of Botswana see the Africanwilddog as the ultimate hunter and traditionally believe that shamans and medicine men can transform themselves into wild dogs. Some San hunters will smear Africanwilddog bodily fluids on their feet before a hunt, believing that doing so will give them the animal's boldness and agility.

Nevertheless, the species does not figure prominently in San rock art, with the only notable example being a frieze in Mount Wrong showing a pack hunting two antelopes. The Ndebele have a story explaining why the Africanwilddog hunts in packs: in the beginning, when the first wilddog's wife was sick, the other animals were concerned.

Hare gave Impala a calabash of medicine, warning him not to turn back on the way to WildDog's den. Impala was startled by the scent of a leopard and turned back, spilling the medicine.

On the way, Zebra turned back when he saw a black mamba, thus breaking the gourd. A moment later, a terrible howling is heard: WildDog's wife had died.

To this day, African wild dogs hunt zebras and impalas as revenge for their failure to deliver the medicine which could have saved WildDog's wife. The Pale Pack, Savage Kingdom, Season 1 (2016), was the story of Botswana African wild dog pack leaders Teeming and Molar written and directed by Brad Baseline, and narrated by Charles Dance premiered on National Geographic.

Dynasties (2018 TV series), episode 4, Produced by Nick Lyon: Wait is the elderly matriarch of a pack of painted wolves in Zimbabwe's MANA Pools National Park. Wait leads her family into the territory of a lion pride in the midst of a drought, with Blacktop's pack in an eight-month-long pursuit.

Foxes, Jackals and Dogs: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. An evidence-based approach to understanding the implications of vernacular name on conservation of the painted dog (Lyon ictus)”.

Lindblad-Toh, K.; Wade, C. M.; Michelsen, T. S.; Carlsson, E. K.; Gaffe, D. B.; Kamal, M.; Clamp, M.; Chang, J. L.; Bulbous, E. J.; Body, M. C.; Marcel, E.; Die, X.; Been, M.; Wayne, R. K.; Stranded, E. A.; Pointing, C. P.; Albert, F.; Smith, D. R.; Sejong, P. J.; Darkness, E.; Alvarez, P.; Big, T.; Brockman, W.; Butler, J.; Chin, C. W.; Cook, A.; Cuff, J.; Day, M. J.; DiCaprio, D.; et al. (2005). “Genome sequence, comparative analysis and haplotype structure of the domestic dog ".

^ a b c Nepali, K.-P.; Pol linger, J.; Godínez, R.; Robinson, J.; Lea, A.; Hendricks, S.; Schweitzer, R. M.; Thailand, O.; Silva, P.; Fan, Z.; Yurchenko, A. “Genome-wide Evidence Reveals that African and Eurasian Golden Jackals Are Distinct Species”.

^ German, Geraldine; Seen, Helen; Baden, Jennifer; Joshi, Kyoto; Bhatpara, Sushmita; KUSC, Naresh; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio; MacDonald, David W. (2017). “Phylogenetic evidence for the ancient Himalayan wolf: Towards a clarification of its taxonomic status based on genetic sampling from western Nepal”.

^ Chavez, Daniel E.; Groans, Plan; Chains, Taylor; Oliver, Sergei; Nepali, Klaus-Peter; Wayne, Robert K. (2019). “Comparative genomics provides new insights into the remarkable adaptations of the African wild dog (Lyon ictus)”.

“Outside Africa: Middle Pleistocene Lyon from Harmonic Cave, Israel”. “Pleistocene Candidate (Mammalian, Carnivora) from the Paleolithic Karo caves in the Caucasus”.

^ Cherie, Marco; Berth, Divide F.; Rook, Lorenzo; Marcella, Rafael (2013). “Re-Defining Cans Etruscan (Candidate, Mammalian): A New Look into the Evolutionary History of Early Pleistocene Dogs Resulting from the Outstanding Fossil Record from Patella (Italy)”.

^ Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Berlin, Lars; De Rooter, Darryl J.; Berger, Lee R.; Churchill, Steven E. (2010). Gopalakrishnan, Sham; Finding, Mikkel-Holger S.; Ramos-Madrigal, Jazmin; Riemann, Jonas; Samaniego Castries, Jose A.; Vieira, Filipe G.; Care, Christian; Montero, Marc de Manuel; Moderna, Lukas; Series, Actor; González-Basallote, Víctor Manuel; Liu, Manchu; Wang, Gordon; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; MiraLax, Slavish; Fernandes, Carlos; Albert, Philippe; Nepali, Klaus-Peter; Bud, Jane; Rudeness, Eli Dispel; Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Petersen, Bent; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Eichmann, Lutz; Wing, Stein; Hansen, Andes J.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P. (2018).

“Interspecific Gene Flow Shaped the Evolution of the Genus Cans”. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.).

Conservation genetics of African wild dogs Lyon ictus (Terminal, 1820) in South Africa (PDF) (Master Scientize). ^ Pole, Alistair; Gordon, Main J.; Gorman, Martin L.; McCaskill, Mara (February 2004).

“Prey selection by African wild dogs (Lyon ictus) in southern Zimbabwe”. East African mammals: an atlas of evolution in Africa, Volume 3, Part 1.

“Comparisons of candid and Felix social systems from an evolutionary perspective”. Two sneezes in the last five minutes of AP pack's second rally on June 10, 2014, in the Okaying Delta, Botswana.

“Inbreeding avoidance influences the viability of reintroduced populations of African wild dogs (Lyon ictus)”. “Prey selection by African wild dogs (Lyon ictus) in southern Zimbabwe”.

African wild dogs (Lyon ictus) can subsist on small prey: implications for conservation”. “Six ecological factors that may limit African wild dogs, Lyon ictus ".

“Forest-dwelling African wild dogs in the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia” (PDF). “Recent records of African wild dogs (Lyon ictus) from Ethiopia”.

“Prey preferences of the African wild dog Lyon ictus (Candidate: Carnivora): ecological requirements for conservation”. “Diet choice and capture success of wild dog (Lyon ictus) in Hluhluwe-Umfolozi Park, South Africa” (PDF).

“The diet and presence of African wild dogs (Lyon ictus) on private land in the Water berg region, South Africa”. “Notes on wild dogs (Lyon ictus) hunting zebras”.

“An objective approach to determining the weight ranges of prey preferred by and accessible to the five large African carnivores”. “Past and Future Causes of Wild Dogs' Population Decline”.

Status Survey and Conservation Plan: The African Wild Dog. “Limitation of African wild dogs by competition with larger carnivores”.

“Six ecological factors that may limit African wild dogs, Lyon ictus ". “Predator-prey relationships amongst the larger mammals of the Kruger National Park”.

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w × y z AA ab ac ad eye AF AG ah AI AJ AK all am an AO AP a AR as at Au av aw ax a AZ BA BB bc BD be bf BG BH bi BJ bk bl BM in Beau BP by BR BS BT by BV by bx by by ca CB cc CD CE cf cg ch CI Fanfare, J. H., Ginsberg, J. R., Sillero-Zubiri, C. & Woodruff, R., eds. In Rosie Woodruff, Joshua Ginsberg & David MacDonald, eds., Status Survey and Conservation Plan: The African Wild Dog : 11–56.

“Status of the African wild dog in the Before Complex, North Cameroon” (PDF). ^ Fischer, Thierry; Ibrahim, Timpani; Hackish, Rafael; Furred, Roman D.; Feinberger, Christoph; Weizmann, Daniel (2020).

“Apex predators decline after an influx of pastoralists in former Central African Republic hunting zones” (PDF). ^ “Wildlife pays the price of Kenya's illegal grazing”.

“Symbolic roles of canine figures on early monuments”. The dog, the Lyon ictus and order over chaos in Predynastic Egypt.

^ “National Geographic TV Shows, Specials & Documentaries”. ^ “The Amazing Story of Solo, the African Wild Dog Who Lost Her Pack (Video)”.

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