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Are Temperature Zones

author
Daniel Brown
• Wednesday, 30 December, 2020
• 14 min read

These are the climates that are typically found toward the more equatorial portion of the temperate zone between 23.5° and 35° north or south, and thus are far more influenced by the tropics than any other temperate climate type, usually having warmer temperatures over the year, longer summers and mild, short winters. On the winter solstice within this range of latitude, the sun still rises to an altitude of between 31.5 and 43 degrees above the horizon respectively thus contributing to the warmer winters however it does not quite reach the zenith (directly overhead) on the summer solstice hence the definition of being within the temperate zone.

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Contents

This type of climate is normally located along leeward lower east coasts of continents such as in southeast and central Argentina, Uruguay and south of Brazil, the southeast portions of East Asia, the southern United States, South Africa, and eastern Australia. Some CWA areas in southern China reported more than 80% of annual precipitation in the 5 warmest months (southwest monsoon).

They occur mostly at the western edges and coasts of the continents and are bounded by arid deserts on their equatorward sides that cause the dry season of summer, and oceanic climates to the poleward sides that are influenced by cool ocean currents and air masses that bring the rainfall of winter. The five main Mediterranean regions of the world are the Mediterranean Basin in northwestern Afro-Eurasia, coastal California in the United States, the southwest of Australia, the Western Cape of South Africa and the south and southwestern coast of Chile.

In these the temperatures remain relatively cool through most of the year, as opposed to mild and warm in the subtropics and cold in the subpolar zone. As a result of their location, these regions tend to be on the cool end of oceanic climates.

This variant of an oceanic climate is found in parts of coastal Iceland, the Fare Islands, parts of Scotland, northwestern coastal areas of Norway such as Often and reaching to 70° north on some islands, uplands near the coast of southwestern Norway, the Aleutian Islands of Alaska and northern parts of the Alaskan Panhandle, some parts of Southern Argentina and Chile (though most regions are still classified as continental subantarctic), and a few highland areas of Tasmania, and the Australian and Southern Alps / A Tritium o the Mona. This type of climate is even found in the very remote parts of the Japan Highlands in Indonesia.

In the most marine of those areas affected by this regime, temperatures above 20 °C (68 °F) are extreme weather events, even in the midst of summer. The vast majority of the world's human population resides in temperate zones, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, due to its greater mass of land.

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The biggest described number in temperate region in the world is found in Southern Africa, where some 24,000 taxa (species and infra specific taxa) have been described, but the native fauna and flora of this region does not have much cultural importance for the majority of the human population of the world that lives in Temperate Zones and that live in the Northern Hemisphere, only environmental importance. Farming is a large-scale practice in the temperate regions (except for boreal/subarctic regions) due to the plentiful rainfall and warm summers, because most agricultural activity occurs in the spring and summer, cold winters have a small effect on agricultural production.

Temperate regions have the majority of the world's population, which leads to large cities. One factor is the strength of the absorption rate of builds and asphalt, which is higher than natural land.

These factors have led to the average climate of cities to be warmer than surrounding areas. However, there is a gradual change from polar to tropical climates across the middle latitude temperate zones.

Normally, in the Northern Hemisphere, the northern portions of the temperate zone feature Boreal, Continental, and Oceanic climates, while the southern portions of the temperate zone are often Mediterranean and humid subtropical climates. Additionally, both temperate and tropical species can be found side by side in the far southern portions of the temperate zone (for example in central Florida), while subarctic species might be found growing in northern portions of the continental zone (for example in Northwest Europe).

Class Class Class Class D Humid continental (DFA, DA, DFB, Dub, DSA, DSB) Subarctic (AFC, DWC, Did, Did, DSC, DSD) The temperate parts of the world are green Unlike in the tropics, temperatures can change greatly here, between summer and winter.

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So, most places with a temperate climate have four seasons : summer, autumn, winter and spring. The western edge of temperate continents usually get this maritime climate.

Some places in the temperate zone have hot summers and cold winters, for example Chicago, Beijing, Budapest or Almaty. Temperate zone | Definition of Temperate zone at Dictionary.com the part of the earth's surface lying between the tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle in the Northern Hemisphere or between the tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle in the Southern Hemisphere, and characterized by having a climate that is warm in the summer, cold in the winter, and moderate in the spring and fall.

Either of two regions of the Earth of intermediate latitude, the North Temperate Zone, between the Arctic Circle and the Tropic of Cancer, or the South Temperate Zone, between the Antarctic Circle and the Tropic of Capricorn. The American Heritage® Science Dictionary Copyright © 2011.

China has a vast territory, and it has more than one type of climate due to different geographical zones. Some good examples are Mexico City (2,250 m above sea level), Bogotá, Colombia (2,650 m) and Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (2,350 m).

Looking closely at the biome map below, you'll see that the temperate deciduous forests are located primarily in the eastern half of the United States, Canada, Europe, parts of Russia, China, and Japan. In the two temperate zones, consisting of the tepid latitudes, the Sun is never directly overhead, and the climate is mild, generally ranging from warm to cool.

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The basis of this division is variations in climate, vegetation, air pressure and the average temperature. These mixed forests are located in the eastern United States, Central Europe, and northeast Asia (including northeast China, Korea and Japan), making up the majority of the temperate forest biome.

With its warm and gentle trade winds, mild temperatures and sunny skies, Hawaii is an ideal vacation destination throughout the year. Generally speaking, the state of Hawaii is tropical, but the temperature and climate can vary dramatically depending on where you are located on a particular island.

The region from the southern Plains, to the lower Midwest, eastward to the central East Coast (the New York City/coastal Connecticut region southward to Virginia) has a temperate climate with cool to cold winters and hot, humid summers. India's climate can be classified as a hot tropical country, except the northern states of Himachal Pradesh and Jammy & Kashmir in the north and Sikkim in the northeastern hills, which have a cooler, more continental influenced climate.

Global climates are often divided into five types: tropical, dry, temperate, cold and polar. These climate divisions take a variety of factors into consideration, including altitude, pressure, wind patterns, latitude and geographical characteristics, such as mountains and oceans.

Tall trees and many kinds of plants are found in tropical regions. The regions have fresh summers and wet winters with mild weather.

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These regions have hot, rainy summers and cold, dry winters. Physical characteristics of continental climates include forests and prairies with tall grasses.

Continental climates have very cold winters and hot summers with an average annual precipitation between 24 and 48 inches. Physical characteristics of polar climates include glaciers and thick layers of ice on the ground.

Tundra climates have at least one month in a year when the average temperature is above freezing levels. The coldest temperatures in the world are found in Antarctica, which is an ice cap climate.

The annual precipitation of alpine climates is about 30 centimeters (about 12 inches) per year. Other plants found in alpine climates include tussock grasses, heaths and shrubs.

Geographical regions defined by climatic conditions for horticultural purposes These are annual extreme minima (an area is assigned to a zone by taking the lowest temperature recorded there in a given year).

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As shown, the USDA uses a GIS dataset averaged over 1976 to 2005 for its United States maps. A hardiness zone is a geographic area defined to encompass a certain range of climatic conditions relevant to plant growth and survival. The original and most widely used system, developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) as a rough guide for landscaping and gardening, defines 13 zones by annual extreme minimum temperature.

Other hardiness rating schemes have been developed as well, such as the UK Royal Horticultural Society and US Sunset Western Garden Book systems. The USDA system was originally developed to aid gardeners and landscapers in the United States.

The low latitude and often stable weather in Florida, the Gulf Coast, and southern Arizona and California, are responsible for the rarity of episodes of severe cold relative to normal in those areas. The warmest zone in the 48 contiguous states is the Florida Keys (11b) and the coldest is in north-central Minnesota (3a).

Carolina, Puerto Rico has the warmest hardiness zone in the United States at 13b. 2012 update of the Hardiness Zone Map ZoneFromTo 0a< 65 °F (53.9 °C) b65 °F (53.9 °C)60 °F (51.1 °C) 1a60 °F (51.1 °C)55 °F (48.3 °C) b55 °F (48.3 °C)50 °F (45.6 °C) 2a50 °F (45.6 °C)45 °F (42.8 °C) b45 °F (42.8 °C)40 °F (40 °C) 3a40 °F (40 °C)35 °F (37.2 °C) b35 °F (37.2 °C)30 °F (34.4 °C) 4a30 °F (34.4 °C)25 °F (31.7 °C) b25 °F (31.7 °C)20 °F (28.9 °C) 5a20 °F (28.9 °C)15 °F (26.1 °C) b15 °F (26.1 °C)10 °F (23.3 °C) 6a10 °F (23.3 °C)5 °F (20.6 °C) b5 °F (20.6 °C)0 °F (17.8 °C) 7a0 °F (17.8 °C)5 °F (15 °C) b5 °F (15 °C)10 °F (12.2 °C) 8a10 °F (12.2 °C)15 °F (9.4 °C) b15 °F (9.4 °C)20 °F (6.7 °C) 9a20 °F (6.7 °C)25 °F (3.9 °C) b25 °F (3.9 °C)30 °F (1.1 °C) 10a30 °F (1.1 °C)+35 °F (1.7 °C) b+35 °F (1.7 °C)+40 °F (4.4 °C) 11a+40 °F (4.4 °C)+45 °F (7.2 °C) b+45 °F (7.2 °C)+50 °F (10 °C) 12a+50 °F (10 °C)+55 °F (12.8 °C) b+55 °F (12.8 °C) 60 °F (15.6 °C) 13 a 60 °F (15.6 °C) 65 °F (18.3 °C) b > 65 °F (18.3 °C) The first attempts to create a geographical hardiness zone system were undertaken by two researchers at the Arnold Arboretum in Boston : the first was published in 1927 by Alfred Reader, and the second by Donald Woman in 1938.

The Arnold map was subsequently updated in 1951, 1967, and finally 1971, but eventually fell out of use completely. The modern USDA system began at the US National Arboretum in Washington.

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It used uniform 10-degree Fahrenheit ranges, and gradually became widespread among American gardeners. The USDA map was revised and reissued in 1990 with freshly available climate data, this time with 5-degree distinctions dividing each zone into new “a” and “b” subdivisions.

In 2003, the American Horticultural Society (AHS) produced a draft revised map, using temperature data collected from July 1986 to March 2002. Their map purported to show finer detail, for example, reflecting urban heat islands by showing the downtown areas of several cities (e.g., Baltimore, Maryland ; Washington, D.C. and Atlantic City, New Jersey) as a full zone warmer than outlying areas.

In 2006, the Arbor Day Foundation released an update of U.S. hardiness zones, using mostly the same data as the AHS. It revised hardiness zones, reflecting generally warmer recent temperatures in many parts of the country, and appeared similar to the AHS 2003 draft.

In 2012 the USDA updated their plant hardiness map based on 1976–2005 weather data, using a longer period of data to smooth out year-to-year weather fluctuations. Two new zones (12 and 23) were added to better define and improve information sharing on tropical and semitropical plants, they also appear on the maps of Hawaii and Puerto Rico.

There is a very small spot east of San Juan, Puerto Rico that includes the airport in coastal Carolina, where the mean minimum is 67 degrees F (19 C), which is classified as hardiness Zone 13b, the highest category, with temperatures rarely below 65 °F (18 °C). The map has a higher resolution than previous ones, and is able to show local variations due to things such as elevation or large bodies of water.

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City Zone Albuquerque, New Mexico 7b Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 7a Anchorage, Alaska 4b/5a Omaha, Nebraska 5b Atlanta, Georgia 8a Orlando, Florida 9b Baltimore, Maryland 7b Panama City Beach, Florida 9a Boston, Massachusetts 6b/7a Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 7a/7b Buffalo, New York 6a Phoenix, Arizona 9b/10a Burlington, Vermont 5a Pierre, South Dakota 4b/5a Charleston, South Carolina 8b/9a Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 6b Charleston, West Virginia 6b Pocatello, Idaho 5b Chicago, Illinois 6a Portland, Maine 5b Charlotte, North Carolina 7b/8a Portland, Oregon 8b/9a Chattanooga, Tennessee 7a/7b Providence, Rhode Island 6b Columbus, Ohio 6a Quad Cities, Iowa/Illinois 5b Dallas, Texas 8a/8b Raleigh, North Carolina 7b Denver, Colorado 5b/6a Reno, Nevada 6b/7a Detroit, Michigan 6b Roanoke, Virginia 7a/7b Fairbanks, Alaska 2a Sacramento, California 9b Hartford, Connecticut 6b Salt Lake City, Utah 7a/7b Honolulu, Hawaii 12b San Antonio, Texas 8b/9a Houston, Texas 9a San Diego, California 10b/11a Indianapolis, Indiana 5b/6a San Francisco, California 10a/10b Juneau, Alaska 6b/7a San Gabriel, California 10a Kansas City, Missouri 6a/6b San Jose, California 9b/10a Las Vegas, Nevada 9a San Juan, Puerto Rico 12b/13a Los Angeles, California 10a/11a Savannah, Georgia 8b Memphis, Tennessee 7b/8a Seattle, Washington 8b/9a Miami, Florida 11a/11b Tampa, Florida 9b/10a Minneapolis, Minnesota 4b/5a Tucson, Arizona 9b Nashville, Tennessee 7a Tuscaloosa, Alabama 8a New Orleans, Louisiana 9b Utqiagvik, Alaska 2b New York, New York 7a/7b Washington, D.C. 7a/7b Norfolk, Virginia 8a Wichita, Kansas 6b As the USDA system is based entirely on average annual extreme minimum temperature in an area, it is limited in its ability to describe the climatic conditions a gardener may have to account for in a particular area: there are many other factors that determine whether a given plant can survive in a given zone. Zone information alone is often not adequate for predicting winter survival, since factors such as frost dates and frequency of snow cover can vary widely between regions.

Even the extreme minimum itself may not be useful when comparing regions in widely different climate zones. As an extreme example, due to the Gulf Stream most of the United Kingdom is in zones 8–9, while in the US, zones 8–9 include regions such as the subtropical coastal areas of the southeastern US and Mojave and Chihuahuan inland deserts, thus an American gardener in such an area may only have to plan for several nights of cold temperatures per year, while their British counterpart may have to plan for several months.

In addition, the zones do not incorporate any information about summer temperature or insolation ; thus sites which may have the same mean winter minima, but markedly different summer temperatures, will be accorded the same hardiness zone. For example, zone 8 covers coastal, high latitude, cool summer locations like Seattle and London, as well as lower latitude, hot summer climates like Charleston and Madrid.

Coastal Ireland and Miami are both Zone 10, but have radically different insolation and summer heat and humidity. The hardiness scales do not take into account the reliability of snow cover in the colder zones.

Snow acts as an insulator against freezing, protecting the root system of hibernating plants. If the snow cover is reliable, the actual temperature to which the roots are exposed will not be as low as the hardiness zone number would indicate.

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As an example, Quebec City in Canada is located in zone 4, but can rely on a significant snow cover every year, making it possible to cultivate plants normally rated for zones 5 or 6. Many plants may survive in a locality but will not flower if the day length is insufficient or if they require vernalization (a particular duration of low temperature).

There are many other climate parameters that a farmer, gardener, or landscaper may need to take into account as well, such as humidity, precipitation, storms, rainy-dry cycles or monsoons, and site considerations such as soil type, soil drainage and water retention, water table, tilt towards or away from the sun, natural or man made protection from excessive sun, snow, frost, and wind, etc. The annual extreme minimum temperature is a useful indicator, but ultimately only one factor among many for plant growth and survival.

Sunset publishes a series that breaks up climate zones more finely than the USDA zones, identifying 45 distinct zones in the US, incorporating ranges of temperatures in all seasons, precipitation, wind patterns, elevation, and length and structure of the growing season. The spread of weather stations may be insufficient and too many places with different climates are lumped together.

For practical purposes, Canada has adopted the American hardiness zone classification system. The 1990 version of the USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map included Canada and Mexico, but they were removed with the 2012 update to focus on the United States and Puerto Rico.

Britain and Ireland's hardiness zones, USDA scale, 2006Owing to the moderating effect of the North Atlantic Current on the Irish and British temperate maritime climate, Britain, and Ireland even more so, have milder winters than their northerly position would otherwise afford. This means that the USDA hardiness zones relevant to Britain and Ireland are quite high, from 7 to 10, as shown below.

In Scotland the Grampians, Highlands and locally in the Southern Uplands ; in England the Pennies ; and in Wales the highest part of Rondônia. Most of England, Wales and Scotland, parts of central Ireland, and Safely on the Isle of Man.

Most western and southern England and Wales, western Scotland, also a very narrow coastal fringe on the east coast of Scotland and northeast England (within 5 km (3.1 mi) of the North Sea), London, the West Midlands Urban Area, most of Ireland, and most of the Isle of Man. USDA's zones do not work particularly well in the UK as they are designed for a continental climate.

New growth may be insufficient or fail to harden off affecting winter survival. The RHS hardiness ratings are based on absolute minimum winter temperatures (in °C) rather than the long-term average annual extreme minimum temperatures that define USDA zones.

Scandinavia lies at the same latitude as Alaska or Greenland, but the effect of the warm North Atlantic Current is even more pronounced here than it is in Britain and Ireland. All these coastal locations have one thing in common, though, which are cold, damp summers, with temperatures rarely exceeding 20 °C (68 °F), or 15 °C (59 °F) in Longyearbyen.

This shows the importance of taking heat zones into account for better understanding of what may or may not grow. In Sweden and Finland generally, at sea level to 500 meters (1,600 ft), zone 3 is north of the Arctic Circle, including cities like Karaganda, Pajama, and Romanies.

Karina is the major exception here, which being located on a hill above frost traps, is in zone 5. The Åland Islands, as well as coastal southern Sweden, and the Stockholm area are in zone 7.

The west coast of Sweden (Gothenburg and southwards) enjoys particularly mild winters and lies in zone 7, therefore being friendly to some hardy exotic species (found, for example, in the Gothenburg Botanical Garden), the southeast coast of Sweden has a colder winter due to the absence of the Gulf Stream. Estonia is divided to warmer West and North coast (Tallinn 6a, Haapsalu 7b, Karla 7a, Kuressaare 7a, Paid 6a, Revere 6a, Larva 6a, Vivaldi 6b) and colder inland (Tart 5a, Volga 5a, Boru 5a).

Central Europe is a good example of a transition from an oceanic climate to a continental climate, which reflects in the tendency of the hardiness zones to decrease mainly eastwards instead of northwards. Also, the plateaus and low mountain ranges in this region have a significant impact on how cold it might get during winter.

Generally speaking, the hardiness zones are high considering the latitude of the region, although not as high as Northern Europe with the Shetland Islands where zone 9 extends to over 60°N. Some isolated, high elevation areas of the Alps and Carpathians may even go down to zone 3 or 4.

Another notable example is Waksman, a small village in the Polish Carpathians, which regularly reaches 35 °C (31 °F) during winter on calm nights when cold and heavy air masses from the surrounding Force and Tatra Mountains descend the slopes to this low-lying valley, creating extremes which can be up to 10 °C (18 °F) colder than nearby Now Tag or Bianka Tatrzaska, which are both higher up in elevation. These examples prove that local topography can have a pronounced effect on temperature and thus on what is possible to grow in a specific region.

The southern European marker plant for climate as well as cultural indicator is the olive tree, which cannot withstand long periods below freezing, so its cultivation area matches the cool winter zone. The Mediterranean Sea acts as a temperature regulator, so this area is generally warmer than other parts of the continent; except in mountainous areas where the sea effect lowers, it belongs in zones 8–10; however, southern Balkans (mountainous Western and Eastern Serbia, continental Croatia, and Bulgaria) are colder in winter and are in zones 6–7.

The Croatian (Dalmatian) coast, Albania, and northern Greece are in zones 8–9, as are central-northern Italy (hills and some spots in Po Valley are however colder) and southern France ; Central Iberia is 8–9 (some highland areas are slightly colder). The islands of Malta, Medusa, a few areas on the southernmost coast of Cyprus all belong to zone 11a and also parts of the southernmost zone of Spain in coastal Andalusia (parts of the provinces of Cádiz, Almería and Málaga) belong to zone 11a.

Also a small area around Lagos and Vila do Bishop in the southwesternmost coastal strip of Portugal belong to zone 11a. The Balkan area is also more prone to cold snaps and episodes of unseasonable warmth.

Owing to its position in the Atlantic, its latitude and the effects of the Gulf Stream, the European Micronesia has by far the warmest winters out of any place in Europe. The criterion is the average number of days per year when the temperature exceeds 30 °C (86 °F).

The AHS Heat Zone Map for the US is available on the American Horticultural Society website. ZoneFromTo 1< 1 217 3814 41530 53145 64660 76190 891120 9121150 10151180 11181210 12>210 City Zone Amsterdam, Netherlands 2 Antwerp, Belgium 2 Belfast, Northern Ireland 1 Berlin, Germany 3 Birmingham, England 2 Bratislava, Slovakia 4 Bucharest, Romania 6 Cardiff, Wales 1 Copenhagen, Denmark 2 Cork, Ireland 1 Derry, Northern Ireland 1 Dublin, Ireland 1 Düsseldorf, Germany 3 Edinburgh, Scotland 1 Gdask, Poland 2 Galway, Ireland 1 Glasgow, Scotland 1 Hamburg, Germany 2 Helsinki, Finland 2 Istanbul, Turkey 6 Kaliningrad, Russia 2 Kiev, Ukraine 4 Kraków, Poland 4 Lisbon, Portugal 7 Ljubljana, Slovenia 6 London, England 2 Madrid, Spain 8 Málaga, Spain 7 Marseille, France 7 Milan, Italy 6 Minsk, Belarus 3 Moscow, Russia 2 Munich, Germany 3 Murmansk, Russia 1 Nicosia, Cyprus 9 Oslo, Norway 2 Lulu, Finland 1 Palma, Spain 7 Paris, France 3 Perm, Russia 3 Prague, Czech Republic 3 Reykjavík, Iceland 1 Riga, Latvia 2 Rome, Italy 7 Romanies, Finland 1 Saint Petersburg, Russia 2 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina 5 Seville, Spain 9 Irishman, Sweden 1 Sochi, Russia 6 Sofia, Bulgaria 6 Stockholm, Sweden 2 Strasbourg, France 4 Tallinn, Estonia 2 Tu apse, Russia 7 Orphan, Fare Islands 1 Trams, Norway 1 Trondheim, Norway 1 Umeå, Sweden 1 Vienna, Austria 4 Vilnius, Lithuania 2 Formula, Russia 1 Warsaw, Poland 3 Zürich, Switzerland 4 South Africa has five horticultural or climatic zones.

The USDA map published in 2012 shows that most of the US has become a half zone (5 °F) hotter in winter compared to the 1990 release. Research in 2016 suggests that USDA plant hardiness zones will shift even further northward under climate change.

^ “7a” areas not part of downtown Washington ^ McKenna, Daniel W.; Polar, John H.; Lawrence, Kevin; Campbell, Kathy; Hutchinson, Michael F. (2007-12-01). “Beyond Traditional Hardiness Zones : Using Climate Envelopes to Map Plant Range Limits”.

Sunset Books Inc. Menlo Park, California (1997) ^ Köppen, Wladimir; Translated by Vol ken, E., and Brönninmann, S. “Die Wärmezonen her Erie, each her Bauer her Hansen, gemässigten UND alien Wait UND each her Working her Warm AUF die organic Welt retracted ” (PDF). Suitability Map for the Probable Winter Survival of Ornamental Trees and Shrubs”.

Pdf ^ “United Kingdom Plant Hardiness Zone Map”. Creating a forest garden: working with nature to grow edible crops.

^ “LAS PLANTS ORNAMENTAL ES Y SUS ZONES DE RUSTICIZED EN ESPAÑA” (PDF). José Manuel Sanchez de Lorenzo-Cáceres, Agricultural Engineer.

^ PlantZAfrica 2016, Horticultural Zones ^ Parker, Lauren E.; Abatzoglou, John T. (2016). “Projected changes in cold hardiness zones and suitable overwinter ranges of perennial crops over the United States”.

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