Zombies are most commonly found in horror and fantasy genre works. The term comes from Haitian folklore, in which a zombie is a dead body reanimated through various methods, most commonly magic.
Modern depictions of the reanimation of the dead do not necessarily involve magic but often invoke science fictional methods such as carriers, radiation, mental diseases, vectors, pathogens, parasites, scientific accidents, etc. The English word “zombie” was first recorded in 1819, in a history of Brazil by the poet Robert Southey, in the form of “zombie”.
The Oxford English Dictionary gives the word's origin as West African and compares it to the Kongo words Zambia (god) and Zumba or numb (fetish). Some authors also compare it to the Kongo word Mumbai (Mumbai) (ghost, relevant, corpse that still retains the soul), (numb) (body without a soul).
A Imbued -to-Portuguese dictionary from 1903 defines the related word numb as soul, while a later Imbued–Portuguese dictionary defines it as being a “spirit that is supposed to wander the earth to torment the living”. One of the first books to expose Western culture to the concept of the voodoo zombie was W. B. Seabrook's The Magic Island (1929), the sensationalized account of a narrator who encounters voodoo cults in Haiti and their resurrected thralls.
In East Asia during the late 1990s, the Japanese zombie video games Resident Evil and The House of the Dead led to a resurgence of zombies in popular culture. These games were followed by a wave of low-budget Asian zombie films such as the zombie comedy Bio Zombie (1998) and action film Versus (2000), and then a new wave of Western zombie films in the early 2000s, including films featuring fast-running zombies such as 28 Days Later (2002), the Resident Evil and House of the Dead films, and the 2004 Dawn of the Dead remake, while the British film Shaun of the Dead (2004) was in the zombie comedy subgenre.
The zombie apocalypse concept, in which the civilized world is brought low by a global zombie infestation, has since become a staple of modern popular art. The English word “zombie” is first recorded in 1819, in a history of Brazil by the poet Robert Southey, in the form of “zombie”, actually referring to the Afro-Brazilian rebel leader named Zumba and the etymology of his name in “Zambia”.
The Oxford English Dictionary gives the origin of the word as Central African and compares it to the Kongo words “Zambia” (god) and “Zumba” (fetish). The concept has been popularly associated with the religion of voodoo, but it plays no part in that faith's formal practices.
The film Night of the Living Dead made no spoken reference to its undead antagonists as zombies “, describing them instead as ghouls (though ghouls, which derive from Arabic folklore, are demons, not undead). The word “zombie” is used exclusively by Romero in his script for his sequel Dawn of the Dead (1978), including once in dialog.
According to George Romero, film critics were influential in associating the term “zombie” to his creatures, and especially the French magazine Cashiers du Cinema. He eventually accepted this linkage, even though he remained convinced at the time that zombies corresponded to the undead slaves of Haitian voodoo as depicted in White Zombie with Bela Lugosi.
A depiction of a zombie, at twilight, in a field of sugar cane Zombies are featured widely in Haitian rural folklore as dead persons physically revived by the act of necromancy of a boor, a sorcerer or witch. The boor is opposed by the Hunan (priest) and the mambo (priestess) of the formal voodoo religion.
A zombie remains under the control of the boor as a personal slave, having no will of its own. The Haitian tradition also includes an incorporeal type of zombie, the “zombie astral “, which is a part of the human soul.
A boor can capture a zombie astral to enhance his spiritual power. A zombie astral can also be sealed inside a specially decorated bottle by a boor and sold to a client to bring luck, healing, or business success.
It is believed that God eventually will reclaim the zombie's soul, so the zombie is a temporary spiritual entity. The zombie belief has its roots in traditions brought to Haiti by enslaved Africans and their subsequent experiences in the New World.
It was thought that the voodoo deity Baron Named would gather them from their grave to bring them to a heavenly afterlife in Africa (“ Guinea “), unless they had offended him in some way, in which case they would be forever a slave after death, as a zombie. A zombie could also be saved by feeding them salt.
English professor Amy Silent has written that the modern concept of Zombies was strongly influenced by Haitian slavery. The Haitian zombie phenomenon first attracted widespread international attention during the United States occupation of Haiti (1915–1934), when a number of case histories of purported zombies began to emerge.
The first popular book covering the topic was William Seabrook's The Magic Island (1929). Seabrook cited Article 246 of the Haitian criminal code, which was passed in 1864, asserting that it was an official recognition of zombies.
This passage was later used in promotional materials for the 1932 film White Zombie. Also, shall be qualified as attempted murder the employment which may be made by any person of substances which, without causing actual death, produce a lethargic coma more or less prolonged.
If, after the administering of such substances, the person has been buried, the act shall be considered murder no matter what result follows. In 1937, while researching folklore in Haiti, Zora Neal Huston encountered the case of a woman who appeared in a village.
A family claimed that she was Felicia Felix-Mentor, a relative, who had died and been buried in 1907 at the age of 29. The woman was examined by a doctor; X-rays indicated that she did not have a leg fracture that Felix-Mentor was known to have had.
A Central or West African origin for the Haitian zombie has been postulated based on two etymologies in the Kongo language, Zambia (“god”) and Zumba (“ fetish “). This root helps form the names of several deities, including the Kongo creator deity Zambia a Mung and the Louisiana serpent deity Li Grand Zombie (a local version of the Haitian Amalia), but it is in fact a generic word for a divine spirit.
The common African conception of beings under these names is more similar to the incorporeal “zombie astral”, as in the Kongo Noise spirits. The idea of physical zombie-like creatures is present in some South African cultures, where they are called xidachane in Soho / Tonga and maduxwane in Veda.
In some communities, it is believed that a dead person can be combined by a small child. It is said that the spell can be broken by a powerful enough Angola.
It is also believed in some areas of South Africa that witches can zombie a person by killing and possessing the victim's body in order to force it into slave labor. After rail lines were built to transport migrant workers, stories emerged about “witch trains”.
These trains appeared ordinary, but were staffed by combined workers controlled by a witch. The trains would abduct a person boarding at night, and the person would then either be combined or beaten and thrown from the train a distance away from the original location.
Chemical hypothesis Davis traveled to Haiti in 1982 and, as a result of his investigations, claimed that a living person can be turned into a zombie by two special powders being introduced into the blood stream (usually through a wound). The first, French : coup DE pure (“powder strike”), includes tetrodotoxin (TTX), a powerful and frequently fatal neurotoxin found in the flesh of the puffer fish (family Tetraodontidae).
The second powder consists of deficient drugs such as data. Together these powders were said to induce a deathlike state, in which the will of the victim would be entirely subjected to that of the boor.
Davis also popularized the story of Clearview Narcissa, who was claimed to have succumbed to this practice. The most ethically questioned and least scientifically explored ingredient of the powders is part of a recently buried child's brain.
Societal reinforcement of the belief was hypothesized by Davis to confirm for the zombie individual the zombie state, and such individuals were known to hang around in graveyards, exhibiting attitudes of low affect. Davis's claim has been criticized, particularly the suggestion that Haitian witch doctors can keep zombies in a state of pharmacologically induced trance for many years.
Scottish psychiatrist R. D. Lying highlighted the link between social and cultural expectations and compulsion, in the context of schizophrenia and other mental illness, suggesting that schizo genesis may account for some psychological aspects of modification. Particularly, this suggests cases where schizophrenia manifests a state of catatonia.
I came to the conclusion that although it is unlikely that there is a single explanation for all cases where zombies are recognized by locals in Haiti, the mistaken identification of a wandering mentally ill stranger by bereaved relatives is the most likely explanation in many cases. People with a chronic schizophrenic illness, brain damage or learning disability are not uncommon in rural Haiti, and they would be particularly likely to be identified as zombies.
One of the first books to expose Western culture to the concept of the voodoo zombie was The Magic Island (1929) by W. B. Seabrook. This is the sensationalized account of a narrator who encounters voodoo cults in Haiti and their resurrected thralls.
Time commented that the book “introduced 'zombie' into U.S. speech”. Zombies have a complex literary heritage, with antecedents ranging from Richard Matheson and H. P. Lovecraft to Mary Shelley's Frankenstein drawing on European folklore of the undead.
Victor Hampering directed White Zombie (1932), a horror film starring Bela Lugosi. Here zombies are depicted as mindless, unthinking henchmen under the spell of an evil magician.
Zombies, often still using this voodoo-inspired rationale, were initially uncommon in cinema, but their appearances continued sporadically through the 1930s to the 1960s, with films including I Walked with a Zombie (1943) and Plan 9 from Outer Space (1959). The actor T. P. Cooke as Frankenstein's Monster in an 1823 stage production of the novel Frankenstein by Mary Shelley, while not a zombie novel per se, prefigures many 20th century ideas about zombies in that the resurrection of the dead is portrayed as a scientific process rather than a mystical one, and that the resurrected dead are degraded and more violent than their living selves.
Frankenstein, published in 1818, has its roots in European folklore, whose tales of the vengeful dead also informed the evolution of the modern conception of the vampire. Later notable 19th century stories about the avenging undead included Ambrose Bierce's The Death of Hatpin Fraser and various Gothic Romanticism tales by Edgar Allan Poe.
Cool Air “, In the Vault “, and The Outsider all deal with the undead, but Lovecraft's Herbert West–Re animator (1921) “helped define zombies in popular culture”. This series of short stories featured Herbert West, a mad scientist who attempts to revive human corpses with mixed results.
Notably, the resurrected dead are uncontrollable, mostly mute, primitive and extremely violent; though they are not referred to as zombies, their portrayal was prescient, anticipating the modern conception of zombies by several decades. Edgar Rice Burroughs similarly depicted animated corpses in the second book of his Venus series, again without ever using the terms “zombie” or “undead”.
Avenging zombies would feature prominently in the early 1950s EC Comics, which George A. Romero would later claim as an influence. The comics, including Tales from the Crypt, The Vault of Horror and Weird Science, featured avenging undead in the Gothic tradition quite regularly, including adaptations of Lovecraft's stories, which included “In the Vault”, “Cool Air” and “Herbert West–Re animator”.
Richard Matheson's 1954 novel I Am Legend, although classified as a vampire story, would nonetheless have a definitive impact on the zombie genre by way of George A. Romero. The novel and its 1964 film adaptation, The Last Man on Earth, which concern a lone human survivor waging war against a world of vampires, would buy Romero's own admission greatly influence his 1968 low-budget film Night of the Living Dead, a work that would prove to be more influential on the concept of zombies than any literary or cinematic work before it.
Voodoo-related zombie themes have also appeared in espionage or adventure-themed works outside the horror genre. For example, the original Jonny Quest series (1964) and the James Bond novel Live and Let Die as well as its film adaptation both feature Caribbean villains who falsely claim the voodoo power of modification in order to keep others in fear of them.
George A. Romero and the modern zombie film (1968–1985) A young zombie (Kyra Scion) feeding on human flesh, from Night of the Living Dead (1968)The modern conception of the zombie owes itself almost entirely to George A. Romero's 1968 film Night of the Living Dead. In his films, Romero “bred the zombie with the vampire, and what he got was the hybrid vigor of a ghoulish plague monster”.
This entailed an apocalyptic vision of monsters that have come to be known as. Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times chided theater owners and parents who allowed children access to the film.
According to Ebert, the film affected the audience immediately: The movie had stopped being delightfully scary about halfway through, and had become unexpectedly terrifying.
Night was the first of six films in Romero's Living Dead series. Lucio Fulci's Zombie 2 was released just months after Dawn of the Dead as an ersatz sequel (Dawn of the Dead was released in several other countries as Zombie or Zombie).
The 1981 film Hell of the Living Dead referenced a mutagenic gas as a source of zombie contagion: an idea also used in Dan O'Bannon's 1985 film Return of the Living Dead. Return of the Living Dead featured zombies that hungered specifically for human brains.
Relative decline in the Western world (1985–1995) Zombie films in the 1980s and 1990s were not as commercially successful as Dawn of the Dead in the late 1970s. Perhaps the most notable entry, the Evil Dead trilogy, while highly influential, are not technically zombie films, but films about demonic possession, despite the presence of the undead.
1985's Re-Animator, loosely based on the Lovecraft story, stood out in the genre, achieving nearly unanimous critical acclaim and becoming a modest success, nearly outstripping Romero's Day of the Dead for box office returns. Notable entries include director Peter Jackson's ultra-gory film Brain dead (1992) (released as Dead Alive in the U.S.), Bob Balaban's comic 1993 film My Boyfriend's Back, where a self-aware high-school boy returns to profess his love for a girl and his love for human flesh, and Michele Soave's Del Norte Della more (1994) (released as Cemetery Man in the U.S.).
Early films such as The Incarnates (1988) feature little gore and no cannibalism, but it is about the dead returning to life looking for love rather than a story of apocalyptic destruction. One of the earliest Japanese zombie films with considerable gore and violence was Battle Girl: The Living Dead in Tokyo Bay (1991).
Zombie revival in the Far East (1996–2001) According to Kim Newman in the book Nightmare Movies (2011), the “zombie revival began in the Far East” during the late 1990s, largely inspired by two Japanese zombie games released in 1996: Capcom's Resident Evil, which started the Resident Evil video game series that went on to sell 24 million copies worldwide by 2006, and Sega's arcade shooter House of the Dead. From the late 1990s, zombies experienced a renaissance in low-budget Asian cinema, with a sudden spate of dissimilar entries, including Bio Zombie (1998), Wild Zero (1999), Junk (1999), Versus (2000) and Stacy (2001).
Most Japanese zombie films emerged in the wake of Resident Evil, such as Versus, Wild Zero, and Junk, all from 2000. The zombie films released after Resident Evil behaved similarly to the zombie films of the 1970s, except that they were influenced by zombie video games, which inspired them to dwell more on the action compared to the older Romero films.
Worldwide zombie film revival (2001–2008) The zombie revival, which began in the Far East, eventually went global, following the worldwide success of the Japanese zombie games Resident Evil and The House of the Dead. Resident Evil in particular sparked a revival of the zombie genre in popular culture, leading to a renewed global interest in zombie films during the early 2000s.
In addition to being adapted into the Resident Evil and House of the Dead films from 2002 onwards, the original video games themselves also inspired zombie films such as 28 Days Later (2002) and Shaun of the Dead (2004). This led to the revival of zombie films in global popular culture.
The turn of the millennium coincided with a decade of box office successes in which the zombie subgenre experienced a resurgence: the Resident Evil movies (2002–2016), the British films 28 Days Later and 28 Weeks Later (2007), the Dawn of the Dead remake (2004), and the comedies Shaun of the Dead and Dance of the Dead (2008). The new interest allowed Romero to create the fourth entry in his zombie series: Land of the Dead, released in the summer of 2005.
Generally, the zombies in these shows are the , first made popular in Night of the Living Dead. The Resident Evil films, 28 Days Later and the Dawn of the Dead remake all set box office records for the zombie genre, reaching levels of commercial success not seen since the original Dawn of the Dead in 1978.
Motion pictures created in the 2000s, like 28 Days Later, the House of the Dead and Resident Evil films, and the Dawn of the Dead remake, have featured zombies that are more agile, vicious, intelligent, and stronger than the traditional zombie. Continued film success and zombie TV series (2008–2015) The success of Shaun of the Dead led to more successful zombie comedies during the late 2000s to early 2010s, such as Zombie land (2009) and Cockneys vs Zombies (2012).
By 2011, the Resident Evil film adaptations had also become the highest-grossing film series based on video games, after they grossed more than $1 billion worldwide. In 2013, the AMC series The Walking Dead had the highest audience ratings in the United States for any show on broadcast or cable with an average of 5.6 million viewers in the 18- to 49-year-old demographic.
At the same time, starting from the mid-2000s, a new type of zombie film has been growing in popularity: the one in which zombies are portrayed as humanlike and behavior, retaining the personality traits they had in life, and becoming friends or even romantic partners for humans rather than a threat to humanity. Notable examples of human–zombie romance include the stop-motion animated movie Corpse Bride, live-action movies Warm Bodies, Camille, Life After Beth, Burying the Ex, and Nina Forever, and TV series Pushing Daisies and Babylon Fields.
Relative decline (2015–present) In the late 2010s, zombie films began declining in popularity, with elevated horror films gradually taking their place, such as The Witch (2015), Get Out (2016), A Quiet Place (2018) and Hereditary (2018). An exception is the low-budget Japanese zombie comedy One Cut of the Dead (2017), which became a sleeper hit in Japan, and it made box office history by earning over a thousand times its budget.
One Cut of the Dead also received worldwide acclaim, with Rotten Tomatoes stating that it “reanimates the moribund zombie genre with a refreshing blend of formal daring and clever satire”. This archetype has emerged as a prolific subgenre of apocalyptic fiction and has been portrayed in many zombie-related media after Night of the Living Dead.
In a zombie apocalypse, a widespread (usually global) rise of zombies hostile to human life engages in a general assault on civilization. This causes the outbreak to become an exponentially growing crisis: the spreading phenomenon swamps normal military and law-enforcement organizations, leading to the panicked collapse of civilized society until only isolated pockets of survivors remain, scavenging for food and supplies in a world reduced to a pre-industrial hostile wilderness.
Possible causes for zombie behavior in a modern population can be attributed to viruses, bacteria or other phenomena that reduce the mental capacity of humans, causing them to behave in a very primitive and destructive fashion. Subtext The usual subtext of the zombie apocalypse is that civilization is inherently vulnerable to the unexpected, and that most individuals, if desperate enough, cannot be relied on to comply with the author's ethos.
The narrative of a zombie apocalypse carries strong connections to the turbulent social landscape of the United States in the 1960s, when Night of the Living Dead provided an indirect commentary on the dangers of conformity, a theme also explored in the novel The Body Snatchers (1954) and associated film Invasion of the Body Snatchers (1956). Many also feel that zombies allow people to deal with their own anxieties about the end of the world.
One scholar concluded that “more than any other monster, zombies are fully and literally apocalyptic ... they signal the end of the world as we have known it”. While zombie apocalypse scenarios are secular, they follow a religious pattern based on Christian ideas of an end-times war and messiah.
He expressed his dislike for depictions of fast zombies and argued that zombies should be slow-moving and inept; just as a healthy diet and exercise can delay death, zombies are easy to avoid, but not forever. He also argued that this was essential to making them “oddly sympathetic...to create tragic anti-heroes...to be pitied, empathized with, even rooted for.
The moment they appear angry or petulant, the second they emit furious velociraptor screeches (as opposed to the correct mournful moans of longing), they cease to possess any ambiguity. Story elements Initial contacts with zombies are extremely dangerous and traumatic, causing shock, panic, disbelief and possibly denial, hampering survivors' ability to deal with hostile encounters.
The response of authorities to the threat is slower than its rate of growth, giving the zombie plague time to expand beyond containment. Zombies take full control, while small groups of the living must fight for their survival.
The stories usually follow a single group of survivors, caught up in the sudden rush of the crisis. The narrative generally progresses from the onset of the zombie plague, then initial attempts to seek the aid of authorities, the failure of those authorities, through to the sudden catastrophic collapse of all large-scale organization and the characters' subsequent attempts to survive on their own.
Such stories are often squarely focused on the way their characters react to such an extreme catastrophe, and how their personalities are changed by the stress, often acting on more primal motivations (fear, self-preservation) than they would display in normal life. In the 1990s, zombie fiction emerged as a distinct literary subgenre, with the publication of Book of the Dead (1990) and its follow-up Still Dead: Book of the Dead 2 (1992), both edited by horror authors John Skip and Craig Spector.
Featuring Romero-inspired stories from the likes of Stephen King, the Book of the Dead compilations are regarded as influential in the horror genre and perhaps the first true “zombie literature”. Horror novelist Stephen King has written about zombies, including his short story Home Delivery (1990) and his novel Cell (2006), concerning a struggling young artist on a trek from Boston to Maine in hopes of saving his family from a possible worldwide outbreak of zombie-like maniacs.
There has been a growth in the number of zombie manga in first decade of the 21-st century, and in a list of “10 Great Zombie Manga”, Anime News Network's Jason Thompson placed I Am a Hero at number 1, considering it “probably the greatest zombie manga ever”. In second place was Living Corpse, and in third was Bi omega, which he called “the greatest science-fiction virus zombie manga ever”.
During the late 2000s and early 2010s, there were several manga and anime series that humanized zombies by presenting them as protagonists or love interests, such as Sankara: Undying Love and Is This a Zombie? Artist Jillian McDonald has made several works of video art involving zombies and exhibited them in her 2006 show “Horror Make-Up”, which debuted on 8 September 2006 at Art Moving Projects, a gallery in, Williamsburg, Brooklyn.
“, wherein zombies walked in the villa like tourists. The release of two 1996 horror games Capcom's Resident Evil and Sega's The House of the Dead sparked an international craze for zombie games.
In 2013, George A. Romero said that it was the video games Resident Evil and House of the Dead “more than anything else” that popularized zombies in early 21st century popular culture. Zombies went on to become a popular theme for video games, particularly in the survival horror, stealth, first-person shooter and role-playing game genres.
Important horror fiction media franchises in this area include Resident Evil, The House of the Dead, Silent Hill, Dead Rising, Dead Island, Left 4 Dead, Dying Light, State of Decay, The Last of Us and the Zombies game modes from the Call of Duty title series. A series of games has also been released based on the widely popular TV show The Walking Dead, first aired in 2010.
World of Warcraft, first released in 2004, is an early example of a video game in which an individual zombie-like creature could be chosen as a player character (a previous game in the same series, Warcraft III, allowed a player control over an undead army). Day, a zombie-based survival horror mod for AREA 2, was responsible for over 300,000 unit sales of its parent game within two months of its release.
Over a year later, the developers of the mod created a standalone version of the same game, which was in early access on Steam, and so far has sold 3 million copies since its release in December 2013. Romero would later opine that he believes that much of the 21st century obsessions with zombies can be traced more towards video games than films, noting that it was not until the 2009 film Zombie land that a zombie film was able to gross more than 100 million dollars.
Writing for Scientific American, Kyle Hill praised the 2013 game The Last of Us for the game's plausibility, which based its zombie enemies on a fictional strain of the Codices fungus, which has real-world parasitic properties. Despite plausibility, to date there have been no documented cases of humans infected by Codices.
Zombie video games have remained popular in the late 2010s, as seen with the commercial success of the Resident Evil 2 remake and Days Gone in 2019. This enduring popularity may be attributed, in part, to the fact that zombie enemies are not expected to exhibit significant levels of intelligence, making them relatively straightforward to program.
However, less pragmatic advantages, such as those related to storytelling and representation, are increasingly important. On 18 May 2011, the United States' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published a graphic novel Preparedness 101: Zombie Apocalypse providing tips to survive a zombie invasion as a “fun new way of teaching the importance of emergency preparedness”.
The CDC goes on to summarize cultural references to a zombie apocalypse. It uses these to underscore the value of laying in water, food, medical supplies, and other necessities in preparation for any and all potential disasters, be they hurricanes, earthquakes, tornadoes, floods, or hordes of zombies.
In 2011, the U.S. government drafted CONAN 8888, a training exercise detailing a strategy to defend against a zombie attack. Michael Jackson's music video Thriller (1983), in which he dances with a troop of zombies, has been preserved as a cultural treasure by the Library of Congress' National Film Registry.
Many pop culture media have paid tribute to this video, such as a gathering of 14,000 university students dressed as zombies in Mexico City, and 1500 prisoners in orange jumpsuits recreating the zombie dance in a viral video. A zombie walk in Pittsburgh zombie also appears as a metaphor in protest songs, symbolizing mindless adherence to authority, particularly in law enforcement and the armed forces.
Here participants do a 5 km run wearing a belt with several flags “lives”. If the chasing zombies capture all the flags, the runner becomes “infected”.
If he or she reaches the finish line, which may involve wide detours ahead of the zombies, then the participant is a “survivor”. In either case, an appropriate participation medal is awarded.
Researchers have used theoretical zombie infections to test epidemiology modeling. One study found that all humans end up turned or dead.
This is because the main epidemiological risk of zombies, besides the difficulties of neutralizing them, is that their population just keeps increasing; generations of humans merely “surviving” still have a tendency to feed zombie populations, resulting in gross outnumbering. The researchers explain that their methods of modelling may be applicable to the spread of political views or diseases with dormant infection.
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Black, J. Anderson (2000) The Dead Walk Noir Publishing, Hereford, Hereford shire, ISBN 0-9536564-2-X Currant, Bob (2006) Encyclopedia of the Undead: A field guide to creatures that cannot rest in peace New Page Books, Franklin Lakes, New Jersey, ISBN 1-56414-841-6 Flint, David (2008) Zombie Holocaust: How the living dead devoured pop culture Plexus, London, ISBN 978-0-85965-397-8 Forget, Thomas (2007) Introducing Zombies Rose Publishing, New York, ISBN 1-4042-0852-6 ; (juvenile) Graves, Zachary (2010) Zombies : The complete guide to the world of the living dead Sphere, London, ISBN 978-1-84744-415-8 Huston, Zora Neal (2009) Tell My Horse: Voodoo and Life in Haiti and Jamaica, Harper Perennial. (Copy at Webster University) McIntosh, Shawn and Everette, Marc (editors) (2008) Zombie Culture: Autopsies of the Living Dead Scarecrow Press, Latham, Maryland, ISBN 0-8108-6043-0.
Foreman, Christopher M., and Cory James Rush ton (editors) (2011) Zombies Are Us: Essays on the Humanity of the Walking Dead. Shaka Gotten, and Jones, Steve (editors) (2014) Zombies and Sexuality: Essays on Desire and the Living Dead.
Bishop, Kyle William (2015) How Zombies Conquered Popular Culture: The Multifarious Walking Dead in the 21st Century. Scanter, Ashley, and Richards, Jessica K. (editors) (2017) Romancing the Zombie: Essays on the Undead as Significant “Other”.