A political outfit associated with Deputy President William Auto has changed its name and symbol. In a gazette notice dated December 28, Party for Development and Reform (DR) has changed its name to United Democratic Alliance (USA).
As reported earlier by Sahara Tungus, the DP has registered a party which he will use to vie for the presidency come 2022. Sources privy to the details indicated that the party will field candidates in the upcoming Mating and Kabocha parliamentary mini-polls.
The newly registered party will also be present during the all important Nairobi Governor by-election and that of Machado senator. It is said that politicians who have been in the game for a while have declined to join the party because of some shady characters like Silva nus Osorio, Sand YOLO, Benjamin Washing and complete rough-heads like Susan China and Bond Malware.
Even the darkest spots of your yard can benefit from a splash of color from these flowers that grow well in the shade. These flowers, known for their tall, beautiful bright pink plumes, will burn in full sun.
A spring bloomer, these flowers grow well in the shade and are characterized by white fluffy blooms. Native to the United States, the dainty forget-me-not is a low maintenance addition to many landscapes and looks terrific in garden borders.
Flower Colors: Blue with yellow centers, pink, white Hydrangeas are famous for their large, rounded clusters of pink, blue or white flowers.
These are non-fussy flowering shrubs that create a great deal of curb appeal. There is one crucial thing to know about this flower: it is poisonous and can be fatal to children and pets if ingested.
If you have children or pets that frequent your space, I highly recommend steering clear of this one. This early spring bloomer comes in a large variety of sizes and colors and makes an excellent garden or border flower.
These cheery, bright beauties can put on quite a colorful display even in full shade. These blooming powerhouses come in a huge variety of colors and will continue to put on a show until the first frost.
These showy flowers are a favorite for good reason: begonias are easy to grow and thrive in a variety of conditions. I plant Bad Bing And Bad Boom begonias (see the picture below) every single year in my window boxes at the front of my house, and in containers on my front step.
With their bright yellow and orange blooms, the calendula (also known as pot marigolds) have long been a favorite in British Cottage gardens. The secret to growing thriving calendula plants is to slightly neglect them.
As a Major in the Royal Artillery, McKenzie investigated an explosion on 2 October 1874 in the Regent's Canal, when the barge 'Tilbury', carrying six barrels of petroleum and five tons of gunpowder, blew up, killing the crew and destroying Macclesfield Bridge and cages at nearby London Zoo. He also pioneered many bomb disposal techniques, including remote methods for the handling and dismantling of explosives.
His advice during the Fenian dynamite campaign of 1881–85 was officially recognized as having contributed to the saving of lives. The New York City Police Department established its first bomb squad in 1903.
The swift mass production of munitions led to many manufacturing defects, and a large proportion of shells fired by both sides were found to be “duds”. These tests led to the development of UBS (unexploded bombs), pioneered by Herbert Telemann of Reinstall, and first employed during the Spanish Civil War of 1936–37.
Such delayed-action bombs provoked terror in the civilian population because of the uncertainty of time, and also complicated the task of disarming them. This caused them to increase their usage of delayed-action bombs in World War II.
Initially there were no specialized tools, training, or core knowledge available, and as Ammunition Technicians learned how to safely neutralize one variant of munition, the enemy would add or change parts to make neutralization efforts more hazardous. This trend of cat-and-mouse extends even to the present day, and the various techniques used to disarm munitions are not publicized.
A bomb disposal team in 1940. Modern EOD Technicians across the world can trace their heritage to the Blitz, when the United Kingdom's cities were subjected to extensive bombing raids by Nazi Germany. In addition to conventional air raids, unexploded bombs (UBS) took their toll on population and morale, paralyzing vital services and communications.
Bombs fitted with delayed-action fuses provoked fear and uncertainty in the civilian population. In the spring of 1940, when the Phony War ended, the British realized that they were going to need professionals in numbers to deal with the coming problem.
Organization was needed, and as the Blitz began, 25 “Bomb Disposal Companies” were created between August 1940 and January 1941. Scientists and technical staff responded by devising methods and equipment to render them safe, including the work of Eric Money.
The United States War Department felt the British Bomb Disposal experience could be a valuable asset, based on reports from U.S. Army, Navy, and Marine Corps observers at RAF Melissa in Wiltshire, England in 1940. The next year, the Office of Civilian Defense (OCD) and War Department both sponsored a bomb disposal program.
The first US Army Bomb Disposal companies were deployed in North Africa and Sicily, but proved cumbersome and were replaced with mobile seven-man squads in 1943. Wartime errors were rectified in 1947 when Army personnel started attending a new school at Indian Head, Maryland, under U.S. Navy direction.
That same year, the forerunner of the EOD Technology Center, the USN Bureau of Naval Weapons, charged with research, development, test, and evaluation of EOD tools, tactics and procedures, was born. The Ammunition Technicians of the Royal Logistic Corps (formerly ROC) became highly experienced in bomb disposal, after many years of dealing with bombs planted by the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) and other groups.
The roadside bomb was in use by IRA from the early 1970s onwards, evolving over time with different types of explosives and triggers. Improvised mortars were also developed by the IRA, usually placed in static vehicles, with self-destruct mechanisms.
During the 38-year campaign in Northern Ireland, 23 British ATO bomb disposal specialists were killed in action. A specialist Army unit, 321 EOD Unit (later 321 EOD Company, and now part of 11 Explosive Ordnance Disposal and Search Regiment RLC), was deployed to tackle increased IRA violence and willingness to use bombs against both economic and military targets.
All units in Northern Ireland had a call sign to be used over the radios. 321 Company, a newly formed unit, didn't have such a call sign, so a young signaller was sent to the OC of 321 Coy.
321 Coy ROC (now 321 EOD Son RLC) is the most decorated unit (in peacetime) in the British Army with over 200 gallantry awards, notably for acts of great bravery during Operation Banner (1969–2007) in Northern Ireland. British Ammunition Technicians of 11 EOD Regiment RLC were requested by the US Forces commanders to operate in support of the US Marine Corps in clearing the Iraqi oilfields of booby traps and were among the first British service personnel sent into Iraq in 2003 prior to the actual ground invasion.
The eruption of low intensity conflicts and terrorism waves at the beginning of the 21st century caused further development in the techniques and methods of bomb disposal. Since improvised explosives are generally unreliable and very unstable they pose great risk to the public and especially to the EOD Operator trying to render them safe.
U.S. Navy explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) divers. In Spain's autonomous Basque Country, where bombings by Basque separatist groups were common during the 1980s and 1990s, there are three corps in charge of bomb disposal: Police National, Guardian Civil, and Ertzaintza. The Ertzaintza handle general civilian threats, while the Police National and Guardian Civil maintain capabilities mainly to defend their own assets and personnel.
In the United States, Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) is a specialized technical area in military and law enforcement. The Royal Engineers of 33 Engineer Regiment (EOD) provide EOD expertise for air dropped munitions in peacetime and conventional munitions on operations, as well as battle area clearance and High Risk Search in support of improvised explosive device disposal.
The time frame for an RLC Ammunition Technician to complete all necessary courses prior to finally being placed on an EOD team is around 36 months. Whereas the Engineer EOD training period although shorter in total is spread over a number of years and interspersed with operational experience, RE personnel may be posted to core trades such as carpentry or bridge building within their time as engineers.
RAF: Any air-dropped munitions (except World War II German weapons) and aircraft crash sites. Royal Navy: Anything of an explosive nature found below the high watermark or deemed to be of a naval origin.
This is usually performed by civilian specialists trained in the field, often with prior military service in explosive ordnance disposal. In addition to neutralizing munitions or bombs, conducting training and presenting evidence, EOD Technicians and Engineers also respond to other problems.
EOD Technicians help dispose old or unstable explosives, such as ones used in quarrying, mining, or old/unstable fireworks and ammunition. They also assist specialist police units, raid and entry teams with booby trap detection and avoidance, and they help in conducting post-blast investigations.
Another part of an EOD technician's job involves supporting the government intelligence units. This involves searching all places that the high ranking government officers or other protected dignitaries travel, stay or visit.
Bomb disposal vehicle demonstration in Tokyo, 2016 Generally, EOD render safe procedures (RSP) are a type of trade craft protected from public dissemination in order to limit access and knowledge, depriving the enemy of specific technical procedures used to render safe ordnance or an improvised device. Another reason for keeping trade craft secret is to hinder the development of new anti-handling devices by their opponents: if the enemy has thorough knowledge of specific EOD techniques, it can develop fuse designs which are more resistant to existing render-safe procedures.
The greatest variable is the proximity of the munition or device to people or critical facilities. Explosives in remote localities are handled very differently from those in densely populated areas.
Contrary to the image portrayed in modern-day movies, the role of modern bomb disposal operators is to accomplish their task as remotely as possible. Actually laying hands on a bomb is only done in an extremely life-threatening situation, where the hazards to people and critical structures cannot be reduced.
Outfitted with cameras, microphones, and sensors for chemical, biological, or nuclear agents, the Wheelbarrow can help the technician get an excellent idea of what the munition or device is. Many of these robots even have hand-like manipulators in case a door needs to be opened, or a munition or bomb requires handling or moving.
The first every Wheelbarrow was conceived by Major Robert John Wilson 'Pat' Patterson ROC and his team at the Bomb Disposal School, CAD Kine ton in 1972 and used by ammunition technicians in the battle against Provisional Irish Republican Army bombs. Placing a disruption charge while wearing a protective suitable of great use are items that allow ammunition technicians to remotely diagnose the innards of a munition or bomb.
These include devices similar to the X-ray used by medical personnel, and high-performance sensors that can detect and help interpret sounds, odors, or even images from within the munition or bomb. Once the technicians determine what the munition or device is, and what state it is in, they will formulate a procedure to disarm it.
This may include things as simple as replacing safety features, or as difficult as using high-powered explosive-actuated devices to shear, jam, bind, or remove parts of the item's firing train. Preferably, this will be accomplished remotely, but there are still circumstances when a robot won't do and technicians must put themselves at risk by personally going near the bomb.
Technicians will don specialized protective suits, using flame and fragmentation-resistant material similar to bulletproof vests. Some suits have advanced features such as internal cooling, amplified hearing, and communications back to the control area.
This suit is designed to increase the odds of survival for technicians should munition or bombs detonate while they are near it. Using remote methods, the technician places the item in the container and retires to an uninhabited area to complete the neutralization.
After the munition or bomb has been rendered safe, the technicians will assist in the removal of the remaining parts, so the area can be returned to normal. All of this, called a Render Safe Procedure, can take a great deal of time.
Because of the construction of devices, a waiting period must be taken to ensure that whatever render-safe method was used worked as intended. Although professional EOD personnel have expert knowledge, skills and equipment, they are not immune to misfortune because of the inherent dangers: in June 2010, construction workers in Göttingen discovered an Allied 500 kilogram bomb dating from World War II buried approximately 7 meters below the ground.
Whilst residents living nearby were being evacuated and the EOD personnel were preparing to disarm the bomb, it detonated, killing three of them and injuring 6 others. The dead and injured each had over 20 years of hands-on experience, and had previously rendered safe between 600 and 700 unexploded bombs.
The bomb which killed and injured the EOD personnel was of a particularly dangerous type because it was fitted with a delayed-action chemical fuse, which had become highly unstable after over 65 years underground. A 105 mm shell is radiographed with battery powered portable X-ray generator and flat panel detector. Portable X-ray systems are used to radiograph the bomb before intervention.
The purpose is for example to determine if a chemical charge is present or to check the status of the detonator. Boot Banger water charge disrupts simulated bombBottler Lite against a small suspect deviceProjected water disruptors use a water-projectile shaped charge to destroy bombs, blasting the device apart and severing any detonating connections faster than any fuse or anti-tampering device on the bomb can react.
One example is the Footballer, deployed under the rear compartment of cars suspected to be carrying bombs. Pig stick is the British Army term for the water jet disruptor commonly deployed on the Wheelbarrow remotely operated vehicle against IRA bombs in the 1970s.
It fires a jet of water driven by a propellant charge to disrupt the circuitry of a bomb and disabling it with a low risk of detonation. It is made of hardened steel, and can be mounted on a remotely operated vehicle (ROV).
The device was developed by the scientists Mike Barker BE and Peter Hubbard OBE at Barefoot Halstead in late 1971 working under great pressure over a period of several weeks after an ATO lost his life in Northern Ireland attempting to render safe the first IED in the theater to contain anti-handling devices. They started with a prototype equipment designed to disrupt limpet mines attached to a ship's hull and through a process of many trials and error developed a disruptor that could deal with the crop of Beds with anti-handling devices prevalent at the time.
Barker used the device operationally for the first time in Northern Ireland during a visit there to demonstrate their prototype to George Styles and his team. The Pig stick prototype was re-engineered by a member of Hubbard's team, Bob White BE, down from its original 20 kg to its current 2.95 kg form but its internal ballistic design remained true to the original.
...in the period 1972–1978, and taking into account machines which had been exported, over 400 Wheelbarrows were destroyed while dealing with terrorist devices. In many of these cases, it can be assumed that the loss of a machine represented the saving of an EOD man's life.
It uses a moderate-power commercial solid state laser (SSL) and beam control system, integrated onto a Humvee (HMM WV), to clear surface mines, improvised bombs, or unexploded ordnance (USO) from supply routes and minefields. The simplest are sometimes danger suppression vessels that merely contain some fragments generated by the explosion.
The other end of the spectrum features top-of-the-line gas-tight chambers that can withstand multiple shots while remaining able to contain chemical, biological, or radioactive agents. Containment chambers of all types may be fitted onto towed trailers, or specialized EOD vehicles.
There is a long history of IED within the UK and protection for this role has evolved over the years. Starting with the Mk1 in 1969, in response to the Maoist Terrorist threat in Hong Kong, through to the Mk 2 in 1974, in response to the IRA threat in Northern Ireland (NI), with further developments of the Mk3 in 1980 to include a new helmet.
The Mk4 EOD Suit, introduced into service in 1993, combines fragmentation and blast protection that is prioritized over the most vulnerable parts of the body (head, face and torso). 52nd Ordnance Group (EOD) 753rd Ordnance Company (EOD) Fares Scale of Injuries due to Cluster Munitions Advanced Bomb Suit Anti-handling device Clearance diver Defining Explosive Ordnance Disposal Badge Fuse (explosives) Began a special police unit of Indonesia specializing in the field of bomb disposal in the country.
Naval mine Navy EOD COE Overpressure Vivian During McKenzie, one of the first experts on bomb disposal Charles Howard, 20th Earl of Suffolk, an early expert of the Ministry of Supply Experimental Squad charged with defusing German bombs with unknown (new) fuses Blue stone 42, a U.K. Television series about a bomb disposal team in Afghanistan. Danger USB, a 1979 UK television series about British sappers during the Second World War The Hurt Locker, a 2009 film about U.S. Army bomb-disposal experts in Iraq.
^ “THE WORK OF RAF BOMB DISPOSAL SQUADS IN THE UK AND GERMANY DURING THE SECOND WORLD WAR”. Nine From Aberdeen : U.S. Army Ordnance Bomb Disposal in World War II.
ISBN 978-1-4438-3786-6 ^ Smith, Steve 3-2-1 Bomb Gone : Fighting Terrorist Bombers in Northern Ireland, Sutton Publishing 2006 pp. ^ Frontline Battle Machines with Mike Brewer ^ “EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL (EOD) SPECIALIST (89D)”.
A Special Kind of Courage: Bomb Disposal and the Inside Story of 321 EOD Squadrons. Bomb Squad: A Year Inside the Nation's Most Exclusive Police Unit.