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Best Wipeout Fails Ever

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James Smith
• Thursday, 10 December, 2020
• 62 min read

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Unforgiving controls were intimidating but very satisfying once mastered. Silver stream was one of the most incredible racing tracks ever conceived.

Licensed music including FOOL, Chemical Bros. and The Prodigy. Many of the tracks were darker giving a cheap sense of difficulty.

Never managed to finish higher than 5th in any race, and spent the entire time driving the tracks alone because all the other cars were well ahead of me. Not fun at all. Then after many years I picked up Wipe out Pure for the PSP.

Amidst the blue skies, a link from past to future. The sheltering wings of the protector... And right now, I can add one more to that list: When you save your settings, your controller config and default name don't load unless you check them in the options yourself.

So if you load your data and hop right into a race, “fire weapon” is back to being Circled (if you changed it to Square like I always do), and after the race you'll have to spend a long time entering your initials. Back before it was released the Nintendo SNES and the SEGA Genesis were still the two latest and greatest consoles, the idea of Sony deciding to make a console was sort of distasteful to a lot of gamers.

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I watched someone play Toshinden and thought “Eh, looks OK I guess.” Then they played the Wipe out demo and my eyes popped out of my skull, it was the most amazing thing I'd ever seen.

Thinking back, Jumping Flash also deserves some credit. I probably would have bought a PlayStation based on Wipe out alone, but Jumping Flash also made a big impression.

The latest discoveries, which depend on observations over a decade or more, are finding solar system analogs. Also, we know that microbial ecosystems can survive in a variety of environments with liquid water and a suitable chemical energy source or sunlight.

Even if the tech doesn't exist, its possible- which means we will do it Rickover 1998 Clifford A. PhD in Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, associate editor for numerous scientific journals, research staff IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Member of SET League (Time: A Travelers Guide; pg 248-249) Various researchers have proposed ways in which backward and forward time machines can be built that do not seem to violate any known laws of physics. Remember that the laws of physics tell us what is possible, not what is practical for humans at this point in time.

Particle accelerators are the physicists preferred means of reaching very high energies: ones which are locally over very tiny regionsmuchon this score, how could they be reduced by studying cosmic rays? Collisions between cosmic rays, extremely fast particles which can have the kinetic energy of rifle bullets, are by far the most locally energetic.

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So long as cosmic ray collision energies weren't exceeded, nothing disastrous could be expected. Destruction of our vacuum creates a new one that destroys the universe Leslie 1996 Johnemeriti professor of philosophy at the University of Guelph and a fellow @ the Royal Society of Canada (End of the World; pg 86-87)As Hut and Sees commented, it may be that the vacuum state we live in is not the absolute lowest one because on many physical theories a local minimum of the effective potential, which can be quite stable, can exist for certain parameter values.

The doubling time of 18 months in Moore's law would steadily decrease, causing an intelligence explosion. AI will destroy the universe through computational errors Bottom 2002 NickFaculty of Philosophy @ Oxford University March (Existential Risks; Journal of Evolution and Technology, When we create the first super intelligent entity , we might make a mistake and give it goals that lead to the annihilation of humankind, assuming its enormous intellectual advantage gives it the power to do so.

We tell it to solve a mathematical problem, and it complies by turning all the matter in the solar system into a giant calculating device, in the process killing the person who asked the question. Vol. In 30 or 40 years, we'll have microscopic machines traveling through our bodies, repairing damaged cells and organs, effectively wiping out diseases.

In an interview with Computer world, author and futurist Ray Surreal said that anyone alive come 2040 or 2050 could be close to immortal. That may sound like something out of a sci-fi movie, but Surreal, a member of the Inventor's Hall of Fame and a recipient of the National Medal of Technology, says that research well underway today is leading to a time when a combination of nanotechnology and biotechnology will wipe out cancer, Alzheimer's disease, obesity and diabetes.

In order to replicate, a nanobot made of carbon-rich diamond material would need a source of carbon. And the best source of carbon would be the Earths surface biosphere: plants, animals, humans living things in general.

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The emitted gamma radiation has been reported to release 60 times the energy of the x-rays that trigger the effect. The discovery of this isomer triggering is fairly recent, and was first reported in a 1999 paper by an international group of scientists.

Beyond the visible part of defense research is an immense underground of secret projects considered so sensitive that their very existence is denied. CNN recently reported that in the United States the black budget projects for 2004 are being funded at a level of more than 20 billion dollars per year.

In the summer of 2000 I contacted Nick Cook, the former aviation editor and aerospace consultant to Jane's Defense Weekly, the international military affairs journal. Cook had been investigating black budget super-secret research into exotic physics for advanced propulsion technologies.

Partly inspired by the pulp science fiction stories of their youth, and partly by recent reports of multiple radar tracking tapes of unidentified objects performing impossible maneuvers in the sky, these scientists were on a quest to uncover the most likely new physics for star travel. Joe Fir mage, then the 28year-old Silicon Valley CEO of the three billion dollar Internet firm US Web, began to fund research in parallel with NASA.

Cook was intrigued when I pointed out the apparent connections between various private investors, defense contractors, NASA, INS COM (American military intelligence), and the CIA. The lateProfessor David Böhm showed that the predictions of ordinary quantum mechanics could be recast into a pilot wave information theory.

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Some French, Serbian and Ukrainian physicists have been working on new theories of extended electrons and solutions, so perhaps a sub-quantum bomb is not entirely out of the question. There is no question that mainstream physicists seriously contemplate a phase transition in the quantum vacuum as a real possibility.

In the early 1970s Soviet physicists were concerned that the vacuum of our universe was only one possible state of empty space. LEV On, a Russian physicist and historian recalls Andrei Sakharov, the father of the Soviet hydrogen bomb, expressing his concern about research into the phase transitions of the vacuum.

If the wall between vacuum states was to be breached, calculations showed that an unstoppable expanding bubble would continue to grow until it destroyed our entire universe! In his dismissal of the possibility of molecular manufacture (see Step 3), George White sides stated that it would be a staggering accomplishment to mimic the simplest living cell.

White sides believes the most dangerous threat to the environment is not Gray Goo, but self catalyzing reactions, that is, chemical reactions that speed up and take place on their own, without the input of a chemist in a lab.77 It is here where natural nanomachines merge with mechanical nanomachinesthat Whiteness warning resonates strongest. The merging of living cells and human-made nanomachines develops, so will the sophistication of biological and chemical weaponry.

Green goo will exist forever its irreversible Adams in 4 (Mike, the Health Ranger, July 19th, http://www.naturalnews.com/000332.html)The potential horrors of nanotechnology seem to keep on coming. Lexis)Those who follow the progress of artificial life research know that effects of messing with the engines of evolution might lead to forces even more regrettable than the demons unleashed at Alamogordo.

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Social technologies threaten life throughout the rest of the universe. It looks as it something even more powerful than thermonuclear weaponry is emanating from that same, strangely fated corner of New Mexico where nuclear physicists first knew sin, Quantum `particles' are better compared with tones of music: they're definitely there, but you can't see them or catch them.

Suck every molecule of air out of a bottle, making it completely vacuum -- and quantum particles will still be there. Is precisely this odd `quantum vacuum' that may one day open the door to a very new source of energy.

Mining the quantum vacuum might bring about an unstoppable chain reaction, releasing an ever-increasing amount of energy. In fact, no-one knows how much energy will be released: calculations done by physicists give answers anywhere between zero and infinity.

Thankfully that's science fiction, but it is getting harder to be sure when one reads reports that scientists are concerned that they might inadvertently create “Killer plasma ready to devour the Earth”. The story centers on experiments that are planned at two high energy accelerators of heavy ions, nuclei of atoms like lead.

Can drop by colliding these pieces of atoms at huge energies scientists will investigate conditions such as have not existed since the first moments of the universe. These are atomic nuclei similar to those that make matter as we know it, but contaminated by “strange particles” such as are found naturally in cosmic rays.

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General question: what risks are there when entering “unknown territory” with high energy particle accelerators? All our experience to date has given us a picture of how the universe works, and based on the best available evidence we proceed to plan the next steps.

CHIC and the LHC will be entering new territory in our current experience, it is not a first in the history of the universe. 1NC Portland finally, you should evaluate this round based on a utilitarian framework It's the best all alternatives fail Bentham 1948 Jeremy philosopher (The Principles of Morals and Legislation; pg 1-2)Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure.

The one hand the standard of right and wrong, on the other a chain of causes and effects, are fastened to their throne. The principal of utility recognizes this subjugation, and assumes it for the foundation of that system, the object of which to rear the fabric of felicity by the hands of reason and law.

It ensures that utilities are not weighted or manipulated to favor individuals distinguished only by what (for the theory) are in themselves morally irrelevant characteristics: sex, race, nationality, species, etc. Equal consideration is extended to all sentient creatures; this is, surly, one of the grander ideas inherent in utilitarian ethics.

Among characteristics of individuals which are morally irrelevant must be included spatial and temporal location. This is the reason for the theories insistence that the consequences of the future (as yet nonexistent) generations must be taken into account in deciding on population or resource policy.

There is no alt to until even if you think human extinction is bad, killing all aliens is net worse Pet tit 1991 Philip professor of Philosophy @ Australia National University (A Companion to Ethics, ed. By Peter Singer; pg 234)It is usually said against consequentialism that it would lead an agent to do horrendous deeds, so long as they promised the best consequences.

Thus, if someone of ordinary values condoned torture, that would only be in circumstances where there was a great potential gain the saving of innocent lives, the prevention of catastrophe and where there were not the bad consequences involved, say, in state authorities claiming the right to torture. These experiments threaten a phase transition that would create a bubble of altered space that would expand at the speed of light killing all life in its path.

A mistake in design or programming could unleash an endless quantity of machines converting all matter in the universe into copies of themselves. Although humanity certainly has its own interests in reducing the threat of these technologies evaluating them without taking into account the danger they pose to alien life is neither appropriate nor just.

Even if humanity dealt with the threats effectively without referencing their obligation to aliens, Poster, Bottom, Leslie, and Sees rhetoric would not be just, because it arbitrarily declares other life forms unworthy of consideration. Applying the lens of acknowledgment to the issue of existential threats moves the problem from one of self-destruction to universal genocide.

The union rule for independent events allows us to compute the probability that there is at least one other planet outside Earth with life on it. Let's start by making some reasonable and minimal (that is, least favorable to our conclusion) assumptions about the basic probabilities of the existence of life on a planet orbiting anyone star other than the Sun.

Entertain the notion that DNA is an extremely complex molecule with a very small chance of occurring on its own and that life is precarious because the universe is a dangerous place. By multiplication of this tiny number by the previous factors of 0.5 and /9, we get the assumption that the probability of life around any one given star is 0.00000000000005.

We will now use all these estimates and plug them into the rule for the union of independent events: P (life in orbit around at least one other star in the known universe) = 1 The answer is a number that is indistinguishable from 1.00 at Even if we assume that there are only 10 billion stars in our own galaxy and that there are only a billion galaxies, the answer still comes out to be a number indistinguishable from 1.00 for the probability of life(0.99999999999995)30000000000000000000000000 any level of decimal accuracy reported by the computer.

New results from the Hubble Space Telescope about the existence of so many billions of galaxies in the universe serve the point that there are so many possible places for life to develop. This type of convergence as the number of trials becomes large always takes place when one uses the rule for the union of independent events.

If there are infinitely many stars, the answer to our question is that the probability of extraterrestrial life is identically equal to 1.00 (not just a number indistinguishable from 1.00 to any level of accuracy), and that this holds true no matter how small the probability of life on any planet may be, as long as that number is not identically zero (and we know that it is not zero since we exist). 2NC Plainsmen if humanity goes extinct life will reemerge if we do not destroy the Universe Grin spoon, Southwest Research Institute Principle Scientist Department of Space Studies and adjunct professor of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences at the University of Colorado, 03 My belief in aliens is inseparable from a certain unavoidable, foolish, naturalistic optimism about our own ultimate prospects.

That I've learned about the nature of our universe and our biosphere tells me that life will find a way to thrive. If we believe even in the possibility of the transformation to wisdom and immortality, then we must live in a universe increasingly permeated with intelligence, and suffused with love.

SET Senior Astronomer, 03 About 25 years ago, two British astronomers, Fred Hoyle and Chandra Wickramsinghe, proposed that comets might be the Johnny Appleseed's of life, carrying vital spores from star system to star system, an idea that is known today as pandemia.

The tail of such a life-loaded comet were to brush the Earth, it might pass some of its frozen microorganisms into the atmosphere where they could descend to our planets surface. Now you might wonder whether life from space, as intriguing as the idea might be, solves the mystery of how biology got started in the first place.

Jay ant Earlier, of the Inner-University Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics in Pune, India, claims to have data in support of pandemia. Once the payload returned to Earth, it was examined in biology labs in Cardiff and Sheffield, England.

This doesn't mean that they didn't appreciate opera, but rather that they couldn't be grown in laboratory Petri dishes. According to Earlier, this was important in ruling out laboratory contamination of the samples the cells found were clearly not a common lab bacterium.

An Earth-like planet spotted outside our solar system is the first found that could support liquid water and harbor life, scientists announced today. The newfound planet is located at the “Goldilocks” distance-not too close and not too far from its star to keep water on its surface from freezing or vaporizing away.

This is a step in that direction,” said study leader Stephane Dry of the Geneva Observatory in Switzerland. Because red dwarfs, also known as M dwarfs, are about 50 times dimmer than the Sun and much cooler, their planets can orbit much closer to them while still remaining within their habitable zones, the spherical region around a star within which a planet's temperature can sustain liquid water on its surface.

Because it lies within its star's habitable zone and is relatively close to Earth, Lies 581 C could be a very important target for future space missions dedicated to the search for extraterrestrial life, said study team member Xavier Delouse of Grenoble University in France. The scientists discovered the new world using the HARP instrument on the European Southern Observatory 3.6 meter telescope in La Silly, Chile.

They employed the so-called radial velocity, or “wobble,” technique, in which the size and mass of a planet are determined based on small perturbations it induces in its parent star's orbit via gravity. Dry said there was a fair amount of time between the calculation of Lies 581 C's size and the realization it was within its star's habitable zone.

Life has expanded on its bag of chemical tricks to facilitate survival in a bewildering array of environments. In recent years, we've discovered life in the strangest of places: in unlikely corners of our planet where no one had thought to search because they seemed so obviously uninhabitable.

We've found bacteria thriving in acid so strong that it would dissolve your skin instantly, and creatures soaking contentedly in super heated thermal springs above two hundred degrees. Some of these hyperthermophiles, or extreme-heatloving organisms, require temperatures above the normal boiling point of water to survive.

Bacteria have survived for 3 million years in Siberian permafrost at fifteen degrees below zero with no sunlight, air, or food. They don't do very much down there but survive simply by waiting, for eons if necessary, until the ground thaws, and they can resume living at a healthier clip.

Large, diverse communities of previously unknown organisms crowd the hot, nutrient-rich waters surrounding black smokers, volcanic vents on the bottom of the sea. The denizens of these recently discovered ecosystems include sulfur-eating shrimp and giant tube worms up to ten feet long.

* In fact, it now seems possible that most life on our planet is in the deep Earth biosphere, a realm extending miles underground whose existence we never before suspected. Biological equivalent of dark matter in that the majority of life even on our own planet could as yet be unknown to us.

We've been sharing a planet with these unlikely creatures for billions of years, but who knew? We continue to find extremophiles (lovers of extremes) that break our conceptual barriers of lives range in temperature, pH, diet, and pressure.

Show us that life is even more robust, adaptable, and resourceful than we imagined, and this encourages us to think that it will find ways to persist in diverse and extreme environments on other planets. When the Apollo 12 astronauts retrieved pieces of the old Surveyor 3 spacecraft, which had been sitting idle in a lunar crater fully exposed to the harsh radiation and vacuum of space, investigators back on Earth were shocked to find viable Streptococcus bacteria that had survived a three-year stay on the Moon.

But even if they weren't the culprits, the chemists have found a multitude of other pathways that produce the chemistry of life. AT No MulticellularityMulticellularity will emerge Darling, PhD in astronomy from University of Manchester, lecturer and renowned author, 01 .

But in 1999, John Brock's of the University of Sydney and his colleagues reported evidence of eukaryotes much older than Romania. The evidence is in the firm of organic molecules called strands, detected in rocks2.75 billion years old.

A straightforward interpretation of these results is that eukaryotes were living 2.75 billion years ago with access to oxygen. It also comes as bad news for a theory about eukaryotic origins put forward by Joseph Kirsch ink, chief of Caltech's Paleomagnetics Laboratory, and which has been used as a Rare Earth argument.

Kirsch ink suggested a number of criteria that the prototype eukaryotic host cell had to meet. It had to he is capable of phagocytosis (literally cell eating, or ingesting food particles by surrounding them); be big enough to engulf other bacteria; and offer a controlled environment so that natural selection would favor it as a partner for symbiosis.

Only one organism, he felt, met all the requirements: Magnetometer a Goliath among bacteria that uses onboard crystals of magnetite to orient itself along Earths magnetic field lines. Kirsch inks proposal was used by Ward and Brown lee as one of their Rare Earth arguments because it implies special requirements for the rise of higher life.

Yet now we have evidence of eukaryotes living at a time when Earths free oxygen levels must have been very low. He takes as his central clue the fact that, together with the Sterne biomarkers, Brock's and his colleagues found traces of what are called alphamethylhopanes.

The stromatolites, Knoll suggests, probably provided an early oxygen-rich oasis in which eukaryotes could get a head start. He counters possible criticism that oxygen released by stromatolites would be quickly diffused into the general ocean in three ways.

First, many eukaryotic cells today can survive in oxygen-poor conditions, needing higher levels only in order to grow and reproduce. Second, the slime that microbial mats produce traps bubbles of oxygen, delaying the gases escape.

Multicellularity is not one of natures recent inventions an emergent quality that needed a long period of gestation. Margulies and her son Dorian Sagan wrote, Life did not take over the globe by combat, but by networking.

Cells within an ensemble can specialize, so that the collective can develop abilities far beyond the scope of a solitary, single-celled organism. It can adapt to colonize new environments and gain access to new resources the ability to build a stalk, for instance, is a huge advantage for an organism that depends upon sunlight.

Multicellularity brings all the rewards and possibilities of being able to assume highly varied forms and structures, creating vast potential for evolutionary exploitation. This morphological potential began to be fully realized during the Cambrian explosion, some 530 years ago.

The history of life on Earth, single celled organisms have shown a tendency to progress at every opportunity toward some form of multicellularity. Microbial mats, tightly-knit bacterial colonies, individual eukaryotic cells, lichen (symbiotic associations of algae and fungi), colonial eukaryotes such as Volvo, as well as the more obvious examples of animals and plants, all display this trend for many cells to come together to form a cohesive and cooperative whole.

Martin Boreas and his colleagues at the University of Wisconsin in Milwaukee studied cultures of the green alga Chlorella vulgarism. The researchers had already shown that populations of the alga will remain single celled for more than two decades, except for the occasional appearance of loose clusters of cells.

The algal population fell to begin with, but then recovered and was found to contain colonies made up of anything from four to hundreds of cells, as well as free-floating individuals. When a feature of life crops up independently and persistently over time, it suggests a universal survival strategy at work.

Contrary to Ward and Brown lees assertion, big moons may not be rare, necessary or even desirable to the emergence of higher firms of life. Computer simulations by Eugenio Rivera of NASA Ames and his colleagues suggest that small planets with big moons are likely to be quite common.

On whether a big moon is crucial to the emergence of complex life, there are two points. First, if the Earth had been deprived of a big moon then, as Seth Shasta of the SET Institute points out: Our planet would spin faster fast enough, in fact, to stabilize it against major tipping.

* In addition, even if an Earth-like planet occasionally does spin flip, it will spend 10 million years or more doing so. Second, new biological possibilities are opened up for planets that do periodically roll on their sides for want of a stabilizing satellite.

In 1997, James Lasting and Darren Williams at Penn State calculated that our climate would be like if the Earth were tipped on its side (as Uranus is) and located 1.4 times further from the Sun, at a distance of 210 million kilometers. They found that, given the extra greenhouse heating due to increased levels of carbon dioxide, conditions should be positively balmy.

The moon is not key to life conditions Lasting, Geoscience Professor, Penn State, 01 Whether a high obliquity would actually make an Earth-like planet uninhabitable for animal life is debatable: continents located near the equator would experience an unusual seasonal cycle with two summers and two winters each year, but their climates would not be subject to the extremes of temperature that would occur at high latitudes.

Williams, et al. (1996), showed that surface temperatures over an equatorial continent could remain in the 0 to 30C range, even at very high obliquity. More importantly, however, Ward and Brown lee neglect to point out that whether a moonlessEarth's obliquity would vary chaotically depends on the planet's spin rate and initial obliquity, as well as on the masses and orbital periods of the other planets.

Models of the Earth- Moon system suggest that Earth initially may have been rotating quite rapidly, with a spin period of perhaps five hours. Its spin rate slowed down over time as a consequence of friction caused by solar and lunar tides.

Of course, the reason why Earth was spinning so fast in the first place is precisely because of the Moon-forming impact, so the above argument is somewhat circular. We have no way of predicting what Earth's initial spin rate would have been if this particular large impact had not occurred, but there is no reason to believe that it would have been as slow as today.

And Brown lee point out, quite rightly, that large planets are less likely to form if heavy element abundances are decreased. A Mars-sizedplanet (one-tenth the Earth's mass) does run into problems: Mars lacks the internal heat necessary to sustain volcanism and plate tectonics, and it also loses heavy gases such as oxygen and nitrogen to space at an appreciable rate.

Unless planetary mass depends on heavy element abundance in a highly nonlinear manner, this particular observation, while interesting, does not appear to rule out the possibility of finding habitable planets around other stars. The other 95 percent of nearby single stars may well have planetary systems similar to our own, we just have not had the capability (or time) to observe them yet.

Indeed, if anything, it appears that high stellar metallicity may be a negative factor because it promotes the rapid formation of giant planets. This allows them to interact gravitationally with the nebula from which they formed, causing them to spiral inwards and clear the HZ of potentially habitable planets.

That's the dramatic conclusion of two studies being presented Monday, June 5 at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Calgary by Professor Ray Jayawardene and his colleagues. Speed of light means they can't Easter brook 03, Senior fellow, New Republic, ”The present vacuum could be fragile and unstable,” Sees frets in his book.

A particle accelerator might cause a tiny bit of space to undergo a”phase transition” back to the primordial not-anything condition that preceded the big bang. Localized nature of science means they will not understand in time to stop it Basally, History Professor University of Delaware, 05 When philosopher Nicholas Rescuer was asked to comment on Drakes' notion of alien science, he dismissed it as infinitely parochial.

What we know about physical reality stems from our special biological and cognitive make-up and our unique cultural and social heritage and experiences. We have no reason to suppose that extraterrestrials share our peculiar biological attributes, social outlook, or cultural traditions.

Astronomy as practiced by humans has been molded by the fact that we live on the surface of the Earth (not underwater), that we have eyes, and that the development of agriculture is linked to the seasonal positions of offered a compelling illustration of how human biology and our situation on Earth shaped our science. Intelligent alien creatures living in an oceanic abyss might develop sophisticated hydrodynamics but fail to study the motion of heavenly bodies, investigate electromagnetic radiation, or build radio telescopes.

Rescuer acknowledges the existence of intelligent extraterrestrials who possess the ability to develop science and technology. He does not dispute the scientists repeated claims (1) that there is a single scientifically knowable physical reality and (2) that aliens are not simply other humans inhabiting a different planet.

Even if some alien life is destroyed by extinction events this hardly means this would always be the case, our Drake evidence indicates there should be 10,000 alien civilizations many have probably reached the point where an asteroid no longer poses a threat. Extinction events increase intelligent life Drake, Astronomy and Astrophysics Professor University of California at Santa Cruz, 02.

It can be argued that extinction events expedite the development of cognitive abilities, since those creatures with superior brains are better able to save themselves from the sudden change in their environment. With the latest discovery of a Super-Earth around a dim, red star 15 light years from Earth, SET scientists have been pondering the implications for their search for intelligence on other worlds.

Over 2,000 years ago, the Greek philosophers Aristotle and Epicurus argued about whether there were other Earth-like planets. A Second Chance For astronomers pondering the possibility of life outside our solar system, the discovery is especially promising due to the sheer number of M stars in our galaxy.

This suggests that there could be enormous numbers of planetary habitats capable of sustaining life, said Seth Shasta, Senior Astronomer at the SET Institute. Long lived planets may be especially important for the evolution of life, given the devastating effects of periodic asteroid and meteor impacts.

Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula 65 million years ago was responsible for the wholesale extinction of dinosaurs. That catastrophe opened the way for the proliferation of mammals on Earth, eventually resulting in humankind.

But on other worlds, such chance events might have obliterated an even greater variety of complex life, perhaps effectively stopping the evolution of intelligence at the least on planets with only modest lifetimes. If evolution happens at a very slow pace, or if many times' evolution gets started and gets truncated, because of some extinction events, explained Jill Tarter, Director of SET Research at the SET Institute, planets around M stars may get more than one chance, and they may be able to accommodate a slower evolutionary mode and still end up with telescope builders.

AT Jupiter Key Jupiter like planets are not key to life Lasting, Geoscience Professor, Penn State, 01 Ward and Brown lee hedge their bets whether Jupiter-like planets exist in other planetary systems.

Jupiter's core had to form fast in order to capture hydrogen and helium from the solar nebula before it dissipated, and then-current accretion models were not able to simulate this under realistic conditions. Paradoxically, these “hot Jupiter's” probably had to form very fast in order to interact gravitationally with their respective stellar nebulae and spiral in to their present positions.

While explaining this process theoretically remains a difficult problem, the empirical evidence tells us that giant planets can and do form rapidly. One can only suppose that they wrote this section before most of the known extra solar planets had been found and then went back and revised it without pointing out that the scientific landscape has changed.

Indeed, the very existence of the asteroid belt is most likely a result of Jupiter's large gravity, which prevented a planet from forming in that region. The flip side of this latter argument is that many authors would agree that the Cretaceous/Tertiary mass extinction facilitated the rise of mammals, and later, of humans.

time when the asteroid struck, the dinosaurs had ruled the Earth for almost 200 million years. Jupiter's will be common around Earth like planets Darling, PhD in astronomy from University of Manchester, lecturer and renowned author, 01 Another claim of Rare Earth advocates is that, in order to nurture advanced life, a planetary system must contain a large gas giant moving in a wide, circular orbit.

Such a planet, the argument goes, serves as a body guard, deflecting asteroids and comets away from the inner regions and so preventing large numbers of these stray objects from crashing into an world on which complex life is destined to evolve. Yet Rare Earth advocates treat the two as statistically unrelated events, different rolls of the dice.

This is a little like the movie character who, December 2000, the discovery was announced of a Jupiter mass planet in a near-circular orbit, only slightly larger than that if the Earth, around Epsilon Reticulum. Some have argued that it does, for the moon helps stabilize Earths rotation axis and keeps it from possibly dangerous tilts.

In addition, even if an Earth-like planet occasionally does a spin flip, it will spend 10 million years or more doing so. Indeed, it already has, during episodes of polar wander on Earth moon, as it seems that our own natural satellite was produced in an accidental collision between Earth and Mars-sized or larger asteroid more than 4 billion years ago.

Intelligent life prevents other intelligence from emerging Smith and Wright 00, emeritus professor of biology at the University of Sussex and Schwartz Senior Fellow at the New AmericaFoundation, Wright: Well that's that's that's maybe a clearer example to say look the evolution of higher intelligence is very unlikely because look it's only happened once in all of this time but of course once it happens you know the First species that reaches it you know starts takes command of the planet essentially, and it probably won't have the opportunity to happen again ... John Maynard Smith: That's right.

We speak these opinions as if we were the omniscient observers, looking over the whole stretch of Earth history and drawing final, sweeping conclusions. We discuss evolution as if it were a done deal, for which we were providing the wrap-up commentary, rather than an ongoing, unfolding process that we are bound up in.

Actually colonizing the galaxy would be so much harder than pretending to have done it when filming Star Wars or Serenity. http://www.seti.org/site/pp.asp?c=ktJ2J9MMIsE&b=179285>Of course, if energy costs can be brought way down, for example with fusion or matter-antimatter technology, or by capturing more of the radiation spewed into space by the home star, this explanation might not hold water.

The Galaxy takes more than sending a ship full of restless nomads to the next star. If each and every colony eventually founds two daughter settlements (a pretty decent accomplishment), then 38 generations of colonists are required to bring the entire Galaxy under control.

Only our universe will support life Davies 04, Professor of Natural Philosophy Australian Center for Astrobiology,

But this does not match the well tested Born rule, which may predict that the bell should ring 70% of the time, for example. Physicists have attacked this problem in a number of ways. “It could act like a big random fluctuation, like suddenly making the temperature of the universe become really high and boiling everything,” he told New Scientist.

In conclusion, firstly, the fate of the universe is much more sensitive to the presence of the cosmological constant (or the nonzero height of the minimum of the quintessence potential) than other matter content, even though the cosmological constant may be extremely tiny and undetectable at all at the present time. Thus, before we pin down the magnitude and the sign of the cosmological constant from observations, it is hard to tell what the ultimate fate of the presently accelerating universe will be.

(Nancy Atkinson, December 16th 2008, No Big Rip in our Future: Chandra Provides Insights Into Dark Energy, Universe Today, http://www.universetoday.com/2008/12/16/no-big-rip-in-our-future-chandra-provides-insights-into-dark-energy/) When you throw a ball up into the air, you expect gravity will eventually slow the ball, and it will come back down again. Using the Chandra X-ray Observatory, scientists have tracked how dark energy has stifled the growth of galaxy clusters.

Combining this new data with previous studies, scientists have obtained the best clues yet about what dark energy is, confirming its existence. The new X-ray results provide crucial independent test of dark energy, long sought by scientists, which depends on how gravity competes with accelerated expansion in the growth of cosmic structures.

“This result could be described as 'arrested development of the universe',” said Alexey Vikhlinin of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Mass., who led the research. Vikhlinin and his colleagues used Chandra to observe the hot gas in dozens of galaxy clusters, which are the largest collapsed objects in the universe.

The results show the increase in mass of the galaxy clusters over time aligns with a universe dominated by dark energy. It is more difficult for objects like galaxy clusters to grow when space is stretched, as caused by dark energy.

The results are remarkably consistent with those from the distance measurements, revealing general relativity applies, as expected, on large scales. But the Chandra study strengthens the evidence that dark energy is the cosmological constant, and is not growing in strength with time, which would cause the Universe to eventually rip itself apart. Modified for large scales.

Other planets of similar composition and size at least that of Earth will also enjoy a dynamic surface. One could just as easily turn this argument around.

Would speculate that plate tectonics is an inevitable outcome for rocky planets that have liquid water at their surfaces and substantial internal heat sources. Ward and Brown lee point out that planets that formed too early or too late in the history of the universe may lack the radioactive elements (U, K, and The) that generate heat within Earth's interior.

A planet that was somewhat more massive than Earth, say twice its mass, might not need any radioactive elements in order to maintain plate tectonics. His book Tweeting are: DE speurtocht near even inaner planetenstelsesl (Twin Earth: The search for life in other planetary systems) was published in 1997.

Or maybe aliens are thickly settled around us but obey, as in Star Trek, a prime directive not to interfere with living planets which are kept off limits as nature preserves. Or perhaps interstellar travel is just as expensive in effort and energy as it appears to us to be, and anyone capable of it has better things to do with resources such as investigating the universe by astronomy or radio.

A more sophisticated rejoinder to the Fermi Paradox was published by William I. Newman and Carl Sagan in Icarus for September 1981. Fast the galaxy fills up depends surprisingly little on the speed of interstellar travel, there are too many planets to be settled and populated along the way.

The expansion velocity of the colonization front is several orders of magnitude smaller than had been previously anticipated, they wrote; filling the galaxy might even take a time comparable to the age of the universe. Summing up, they quipped Rome was not but in a day, although one can cross IR on foot in a few hours.

AT Rock FormationsMost planets have suitable materials Shasta 00 (Seth SET writer, satirist.edu) is an American astronomer. Rare Earths authors suggest that the composition of our solar system, including the materials necessary for making rocky planets, might be unusual.

Note that the mass of the Earth is only about 0.0003% that of the Sun, so even in the metal deprived neighborhoods of globular clusters there is more than enough suitable material for constructing Earth-like planets. AT Idiosyncrasy Idiosyncrasy isn't essential to life Shasta 00 (Seth writer for satirist.edu) is an American astronomer.

When we tote up a laundry list of Earths astronomical properties it may seem to imply that our But one should always be leery of probabilities calculated after the fact. The question is not how idiosyncratic is Earth, but whether our world enjoys circumstances that are simultaneously rare and essential to complex life.

There are plenty of other solar systems that can support life New Scientist, 06Most of the stars in the Milky Way are born alone and live out their lives without partners, a new analysis suggests. If true, the work overturns standard theories that stars are born in broods and also suggests planets and potentially life may be more common in the galaxy than thought.

According to most models, they are born there in clutches, with several stars condensing from each of many large, dense clouds of matter. He says those models are based on early stellar surveys that focused on bright, relatively massive stars like the Sun.

Cloud turbulence Frank SHU, an astronomer and president of the National Tsinghua University in Taiwan, agrees. But he says that scenario is unlikely, as stellar home-wreckers are most likely to break up pairs of stars that orbit each other at relatively large distances.

SHU has done previous theoretical work suggesting this turbulence may cause large clouds to separate into groups of massive stars. “It means the majority of stars in the galaxy and the universe forms under considerably more quiescent conditions than have been promoted in some quarters,” SHU says.

“Those factors together make the stars very likely sites for the formation of planets and life,” Lehman says. People who have made rash claims in the past will have to re-evaluate their positions.” This argument is not responsive: Our evidence indicates that high energy physics experiments and other upcoming technologies will lead to destruction of the universe.

Science is localized believing aliens will develop the same technology is parochial Basally 05, History Professor University of Delaware, When philosopher Nicholas Rescuer was asked to comment on Drakes' notion of alien science, he dismissed it as infinitely parochial. What we know about physical reality stems from our special biological and cognitive make-up and our unique cultural and social heritage and experiences.

We have no reason to suppose that extraterrestrials share our peculiar biological attributes, social outlook, or cultural traditions. Rescuer offered a compelling illustration of how human biology and our situation on Earth shaped our science.

Astronomy as practiced by humans has been molded by the fact that we live on the surface of the Earth (not underwater), that we have eyes, and that the development of agriculture is linked to the seasonal positions of celestial objects. Intelligent alien creatures living in an oceanic abyss might develop sophisticated hydrodynamics but fail to study the motion of heavenly bodies, investigate electromagnetic radiation, or build radio telescopes.

We look for these signs because thebiology-centric assumption is that aliens will be just like us, only very, very different -- little green people with acid for blood, sentient jellyfish with a taste for cheeseburgers, or insects that have evolved with a sense of humor. Even search strategies that use “universal mathematical constants” ignore the possibility, proposed by some postmodern philosophers of science, that formal modern mathematics is a function of cognitive structure unique to humans, or less specifically to a narrow range of beings similar to humans, for example, hominids.

The point is that technology analysts who can only see life as some variation on biology will see the BTM interface as a way for “us” to plug into “it.” But the (correctly) limitless nature of that definition is truncated when plants and animals are immediately used as the prime examples.

NASA, an agency that should know better, has saturated the media for decades with hypnotic invocations of water and organics as the true signs of extraterrestrial life. Stories of demonic computers and undead cyber-blood lust are endlessly refilled with really cool graphics, a variety of soundtracks, and excellent eyewear.

Is distinctly ironic that when we consider aliens, life on Earth infuses our scientific models, our dreams, and our entertainment. The biology paradox makes exobiology speciously comprehensible, but by clinging to it, we dismiss almost all the chemistry in the universe.

The fossil records is clear, intelligence is naturally selected Shasta 00 (Seth SET writer) http://www. The maximum degree of encephalization which (Crudely speaking) measures the ratio of brain to body mass has increased considerably in complex animals for the last 100 million years or so.

Even the most cerebral of these lumbering lizards had less brain power, as judged by encephalization, than an ostrich. Consequently, many of today's animals would handily outscore their Mesozoic predecessors on any IQ test.

Human-level sophistication could be a common outcome of this ratcheting up of neural capability, although it is the uncertainty of this conclusion that drives us to look for intelligence elsewhere. That We will win that aliens exist which mean that they can achieve the Omega point independent of humanity and resurrect all life.

Even Tiller admits there is no solid evidence for the Omega Point Schemer, teaches history of science, technology, and evolutionary thought, Occidental College, 02On the first page of the Physics of Immortality, Tiller claims that his Omega Point Theory is a testable physical theory for an omnipotent, omniscient, omnipresent God who will one day in the far future Hope Springs Eternal Problem. The consensus of scientists disagrees Schemer 02, teaches history of science, technology, and evolutionary thought, Occidental College, None of this deterred Tiller, who continued without John Barrow in The Physics of immortality.

Physicist who is one of the world's leading proponents of integrating science and religion, said he could recommend this book be published only if I would write it as if I didn't really believe this stuff (1995). Well-known German theologian Wolfram Spangenberg, who believes in God as a future being, offered his support in Wagon (Summer 1995), but most scientists and theologians echoed astronomer Joseph Silks review in Scientific American: Tiller, however, takes the search for a science of God to a ridiculous extreme.

Humility in the face of the persistent, great unknowns is the true philosophy that modern physics has to offer Attractive the world of artificial life might seem (at least to the scientists who envision it), we have no reason to believe that we can really understand the beings who would live there.

A corollary to Arthur C. Clarke's law that any sufficiently advanced technology is true for compassion, benevolence, amusement, or any other possible motive that we are capable of imagining. Their authors have zero qualifications or credible evidence for the claim that UFOs are visiting earth much less that Aliens need out DNA (insert whatever bad argument is made).

Aliens are not visiting earth, your authors are cranks Shasta, SET Senior Astronomer, 05 And it's not really the point. In the course of a recent TV broadcast in which I participated, guest experts who have long studied UFOs argued the case for their alien nature by showing photographs of putative saucers hovering at low altitudes.

Abduction stories are an entirely separate field of study and one which I won't address here, although I must be free of photographic trickery. And others with experienced eyes and impressive credentials have all claimed to see odd craft in the skies.

Its confess that it's intriguing to see photos of scoop marks on the flesh of human subjects, coupled with the claim that these minor disfigurements are due to alien malfeasance. Aside from the puzzling question of why beings from distant suns would come to Earth to melon-ball the locals, this evidence is, once again, ambiguous.

When push came to shove, and when pressed whether there's real proof of extraterrestrial visitation, the experts on this show backed off by saying that “well, we don't know where they come from. Burlington News No dateDraconians, known as the serpent race, http://www.burlingtonnews.net/draconians.htmlThe Draconian do not like human beings.

The evidence indicates that Grey's are evil your authors have been brainwashed while abducted Burlington News in 03 UFO Burlington UFO and Paranormal Research and Educational Center The Grey's, 03/27, http://www.burlingtonnews.net/greys.html These theories both have their various sources, and both have evidence that supports one theory, while detracting from the other. The author's personal views lean towards the first theory, due to several key points of evidence.

Government files, on the other hand, claim the Grey's are adept liars, and they are not to be trusted. However, the world government is so desperate to get rid of the Grey's, that they apparently have put a call out for help, using satellites.

Oh, and time travel destroys the universe- no risk of an impact turn The Grey's don't understand the tech they can't save us. Under this theory, the cetacean ancestors of the Grey's were taken and genetically altered into an upright, bipedal species capable of doing labor for the Masters.

Of the computer models that examine future resource trends predict a constant to slightly increasing rate of forest expansion through 2100.57 Some main reasons for this trend include the emergence of substitutes for timber,58 increasing reliance on plantation forests for timber, and more efficient logging practices in general.59 Those Trends will likely accelerate in the future, returning a tremendous amount of today's forests harvested for human use back to nature.60 Conservationists argue, however, that positive macro-trends in forestland health hide significant micro-problems.

Warming theory is false- it's not anthropogenic and there are too many alternative causes Pipes and Richer 2003Sally C., president and chief executive officer of the Pacific Research Institute, National Advisory Board of the Capital Research Center, Benjamin, senior fellow in economics at the Pacific Research Institute, Cato adjunct scholar, Claremont Institute adjunct fellow, PhD in Economics from UCLA, December, Pacific Research Institute Study, Attorneys General Versus The EPA,http://www.pacificresearch.org/pub/sab/enviro/CO2-Study-12-03.pdf In 2001, more than 17,000 scientists physicists, geophysicists, climatologists, meteorologists, oceanographers, environmental scientists, chemists, biochemists, biologists, and so forth endorsed the proposition that:The proposed limits on greenhouse gases would harm the environment, hinder the advance of science and technology, and damage the health and welfare of mankind. Therein no convincing scientific evidence that human release of carbon dioxide, methane, or other greenhouse gasses is causing or will, in the foreseeable future, cause catastrophic heating of the earths atmosphere and disruption of the earths' climate.

To the extent that warming is occurring, it is not clear that the dominant source is anthropogenic, and the attendant magnitude is obscure as well. “Ordinarily,” Oprah declared, “we would not even put people on television, on our show certainly, who make such bizarre claims.

There is his Pulitzer Prize (won not for anything to do with UFO's, of course, but for biography of T. E. Lawrence published 17 years ago). Mack's publicists--besides Scribner's, he uses a New Jersey firm, PR with a Purpose Inc--are combining and recombining these elements in sleazy ways.

Catherine is forced to lie on a table naked and spread her legs while an alien with cold hands inserts an instrument into her vagina. Psychiatrist talk, naturally: “Efforts to establish a pattern of psychopathology other than disturbances associated with a traumatic event have been unsuccessful.

Psychological testing of abductees has not revealed evidence of mental or emotional disturbance that could account for their These aliens, clumsy as they are about anesthesia and scars, have a way of making the experience vanish from the conscious minds of all 4 million of their American victims.

Garry Trudeau has shined his own form of common sense on the process in a Doonesbury sequence that has a hypnotized subject saying “Now I see a . He doesn't provide information about his hypnotic techniques, though he does give the impression that there's a lot of breathing involved.

Our Webb evidence indicates that this type of biotech would inevitably break out of the lab like a virus it says that the tech will develop to a point where we wouldn't be able to control it, and it would wreak havoc on the environment, feeding on all the carbon on Earth- this would lead to green goo which would force the nanotech to consume the universe, all the while self replicating. Nanotech weapons could be used to create superior bots, which would kill all life Dealer in 86 (Eric K. Ph.D.

We have evolved to love a world rich in living things, ideas, and diversity, so there is no reason to value gray goo merely because it could spread. The gray goo threat makes one thing perfectly clear: we cannot afford certain kinds of accidents with replicating assemblers.

And as advances in computer-aided design speed the development of molecular tools, the advance toward assemblers will quicken. Extend Leslie 96 We have already tested particle accelerators in a lab, and they have almost reached the speed of light.

The calculations show that the likelihood of getting a Higgs out of a particular collision is so small that over the course of a year we can't see the signs of more than a hundred or so (with a mass of 126 GEV). If there is no Higgs, we would expect that value to be around 0.5 (50%), i.e., the same as the chance that the flip of a coin will come up heads.

In his new book, Our Final Hour, Sees worries that power improvements in atom smasherslike Brookhaven's new Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider might make these machines capable of creating a black hole that would scarf up the globe. 16, 2005(A New Model Army Soldier Rolls Closer to the Battlefield; http://aolsvc.news.aol.com/news/article.adp?id=20050216101209990001)Pentagon predicts that robots will be a major fighting force in the American military in less than a decade, hunting and killing enemies in combat.

The effort to rebuild itself as a 21st-century fighting force, and a $127 billion project called Future Combat Systems is the biggest military contract in American history. Even the strongest advocates of automatons say war will always be a human endeavor, with death and disaster.

Robots in battle, as envisioned by their builders, may look and move like humans or hummingbirds, tractors or tanks, cockroaches or crickets. The Pentagon intends for robots to haul munitions, gather intelligence, search buildings or blow them up.

Already, however, several hundred robots are digging up roadside bombs in Iraq, scouring caves in Afghanistan and serving as armed sentries at weapons depots. By April, an armed version of the bomb-disposal robot will be in Baghdad, capable of firing 1,000 rounds a minute.

Though controlled by a soldier with a laptop, the robot will be the first thinking machine of its kind to take up a front-line infantry position, ready to kill enemies. “The real world is not Hollywood,” said Rodney A. Brooks, director of the Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory at M.I.T.

Despite the obstacles, Congress ordered in 2000 that a third of the ground vehicles and a third of deep-strike aircraft in the military must become robotic within a decade. If that mandate is to be met, the United States will spend many billions of dollars on military robots by 2010.

They will turn the entire universe into a computational device and kill everyone and everything in a cold, robotic calculation. Lexis)Those who follow the progress of artificial life research know that effects of messing with the engines of evolution might lead to forces even more regrettable than the demons unleashed at Alamogordo.

Those who follow the progress of artificial-life research know that the effects of messing with the engines of evolution might lead to forces even more regrettable than the demons unleashed at Alamogordo. The technology of self-replicating machines that could emerge in future decades from today's a-life research might escape from human or even terrestrial control, infest the solar system, and, given time, break out into the galaxy.

If there are no other intelligent species in existence, maybe we will end up creating God, or the Devil, depending on how our minds' children evolve a billion years from now. The entire story of life on earth thus far might be just the wetware prologue to a longer, larger, drier tale, etched in silicon rather than carbon, and blasted to the stars -- purposive spores programmed to seek, grow, evolve, expand.

Scenarios like that make the potential for global thermonuclear war or destruction of the biosphere look like a relatively local problem. Prof Boris theory, set out in the prestigious science journal Physical Review, rests on a set of mathematical equations describing hypothetical conditions that, if established, could lead to the formation of a time machine, technically known as closed time-like curves.

'T Hoof of the University of Utrecht in the Netherlands is determined to grind any hope that cosmic strings may work under his heel. The dilemma described by 't Hoof shows that in a closed universe, the strings cannot pass parallel to each other.

Mukherjee (1994) described the event from the prospective of a potential time traveler: “A time-machine ticket-holder will see massive walls closing in while being shredded to spaghetti by the strings speeding through. The scene sketched by 't Hoof shows how such objects can act as Nature's dragons, guarding time machines from fools who would rush in” (p. 32).

Extend Begum in 4 The defense department is investing in new types of chemical bombs that are based on Hafnium and release high energy gamma rays. In the dark halls of defense research, scientists have found a way to create high frequency weapons that can disrupt the energy levels of our vacuum.

New military technology will use lasers that exceed cosmic energy Leslie 96, Philosophy Professor, Guelph UniversityAmong the sources of electromagnetic waves which physicists have so far developed, the most powerful are the hard-X-ray lasers of President Reagan's SDI or Star Wars project. The National Ignition Facility laser proposed to replace it would be about twenty times more powerful.

With light of a single frequency, one can use a crystal whose refractive index varies in response to a rapidly oscillating electric field. Original discovery in this area was that passing laser light through a quartz crystal could lead to frequency doubling.

The technique may one day make it possible to “optically switch” a material from one structure to another, even without any absorption of the light. Like an ice crystal, which can assume nine different forms (popularized in Kurt Vonnegut's sci-fi story in which a mad scientist tries to freeze the Earth by turning the oceans into “ice nine”), other crystals may be altered by rearranging their structure from that of one phase to another.

This method may make it possible to “optically control” a material by changing the configuration of its molecularAlthough this objective is still far off, infrastructure, and even to create new states of existing materials by forcing their atoms into configurations they wouldn't normally assume, Professor Nelson said. If sufficiently large motions can be induced, the material could enter a new crystalline phase.

As the universe expands and cools, tiny bubbles of this new kind of vacuum might appear and spread at nearly the speed of light. Extend the Funds evidence scientists are inevitably going to create machines that mine the quantum vacuum.

As was noted by J. Ellis, A. Linde and M. Her, many physicists would not like to even consider the possibility that we live in an unstable vacuum state. This figure might seem alarmingly high, but some currently popular theories view it as a sign of a Higgs boson massive enough to exclude the danger entirely, as J. Depart and D. Lambert say.

It is important to acknowledge that nanotechnology does not always involve self-replication, and biological materials can be harnessed for more mundane applications. However, propelled by venture capital and taxpayer dollars, the field of nanotech is advancing rapidly, in the absence of public debate or regulatory oversight.

Imagine that you are visiting a Central American country, and you happen upon a village square where an army captain is about to order his men to shoot peasants lined up against a wall. When you ask the reason, you are told someone in this village shot at the captains men last night.

What is right though the world should perish was a difficult principle even when Kant expounded it in the eighteenth century, and there is some evidence that he did not mean it to be taken literally even then. 2NC Utilities are not exempt they must be involved in our consequentialism framework Ryder 2005 Richard -- Professor at Tulane University and chairman of the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty animals- August 6, (All beings that feel pain deserve human rights/ Equality of the species is the logical conclusion of postDarwin morality; http://www.guardian.co.uk/animalrights/story/0,11917,1543799,00.html) The word species ism came to me while Was lying in a bath in Oxford some 35 years ago.

According to the predominate view in bioethics, the “quality” of a life as judged by its level of cognitive capacity. Their impact claims are overgeneralized, non-causal assertions that are the opposite of truth modern biopolitics includes economic pluralization and democracy that inhibits the rise to totalitarianism, even if it involves centralized state coercion Kane 1997 Modernity, the Holocaust, and politics, Economy and Society, February, ebscoModern bureaucracy is not intrinsically capable of genocidal action (Batman 1989: 106).

As Nazi Germany and Stalin's USSR have shown, furthermore, those chosen policies of genocidal government turned away from and not towards modernity. The way of another Holocaust in modern society. An analysis of the history of each case plays an important part in explaining where and how genocidal governments come to power and analysis of political institutions and structures also helps towards an understanding of the factors which act as obstacles to modern genocide.

By ignoring competition and the capacity for people to move between organizations whether economic, political, scientific or social, Batman overlooks 1, Marching an important programmatic statement of 1996 Geoff Era celebrated the fact that Foucault's ideas have fundamentally directed attention away from institutionally centered conceptions of government and the state.

And toward a dispersed and recentered notion of power and its microphysics.48 The broader, deeper, and less visible ideological consensus on technocratic reason and the ethical unsoundness of science was the focus of his interest.49 But the power-producing effects in Foucault's microphysical sense (Era) of the construction of social bureaucracies and social knowledge, of an entire institutional apparatus and system of practice (Jean Quarter), Biopolitics is good only seeing it as bad a) ignores the massive decrease in structural violence it has caused and b) views power unidirectional in contradiction within their own critique Dickinson 2004 Edward Ross (Professor at University of Cincinnati) Biopolitics, Fascism, Democracy: Some Reflections on Discourse About Modernity, Central European History, vol.

92 And that consensus is almost always fundamentally a nasty, oppressive thing, one that partakes in crucial ways of the essential quality of National Socialism. Biopolitics is almost never conceived of or at least discussed in any detail as creating possibilities for people, as expanding the range of their choices, as empowering them, or indeed as doing anything positive for them at all.

Of course, at the most simple-minded level, it seems to me that an assessment of the potentials of modernity that ignores the ways in which biopolitics has made life tangibly better is somehow deeply flawed. To give just one example, infant mortality in Germany in 1900 was just over 20 percent; or, in other words, one in five children died before reaching the age of one year.

By 1913, it was 15 percent; and by 1929 (when average real purchasing power was not significantly higher than in 1913) it was only 9.7 percent.93 The expansion of infant health programs an enormously ambitious, bureaucratic, medicalizing, and sometimes intrusive, social engineering project had a great deal to do with that change. It would be bizarre to write a history of biopolitical modernity that ruled out an appreciation for how absolutely wonderful and astonishing this achievement and any number of others like it really was.

There was a reason for the Machbarkeitswahn of the early twentieth century: many marvelous things were in fact becoming mach bar. David Crew and Greg Egyptian, for example, have given us detailed studies of the micropolitics of welfare in the Weimar period in which it becomes clear that conflicts between welfare administrators and their clients were sparked not only by heavy handed intervention, but also by refusal to help.94 What is more, the specific nature of social programs matters a great deal, and we must distinguish between the different dynamics (and histories) of different programs.

Even where social workers really were attempting to limit or subvert the autonomy and power of parents, I am not sure that their actions can be characterized only and exclusively as part of a microphysics of oppression. They did so because they feared the unintended physical and psychological effects of beatings, and implicitly because they believed physical violence could compromise the development of the kind of autonomous, self reliant subjectivity on which a modern state had to rely in its citizenry.96 Or, to give another common example from the period, children removed from their families after being subjected by parents or other relatives to repeated episodes of violence or rape were being manipulated by biopolitical technocrats, and were often abused in new ways in institutions or foster families; but they were also being liberated.

1, March This issue is important, I believe, in part because the project of ferreting out the contribution of biopolitical discourses to the construction of National Socialism so dominates the literature, creating a sense of impending disaster that I believe has all too strongly shaped the questions we, as historians, are asking about the history of modern biopolitics. I want to give two examples that I believe reveal the way this focus constrains our collective historical imagination.

Is the regimentation and discipline of citizens in often dangerously imaginative ways; it establishes significant continuities between the Weimar era and the Third Reich; the history of the republic reveals the dark shadows of modernity.58 Indeed, the conceptual framework Nietzsche set up seems to take totalitarianism, war, and mass murder as the end-point of continuity. Taking up a question asked by Gerald Feldman, Nietzsche suggested that the Weimar Republic was neither a gamble nor an experiment, but rather a laboratory of modernity.

From this perspective, Nietzsche asserts, perhaps Weimar should be regarded as less a failure than a series of bold experiments that do not come to an end with the year 1933. Particular kinds of experiments were not permitted in the Third Reich: those founded on the idea of the toleration of difference; those that defined difference as a psychological, political, or cultural fact to be understood and managed, rather than as a form of deviance or subversion to be repressed or eliminated; those founded on the idea of integration through self directed participation (as opposed to integration through orchestrated and obedient participation); and those that aimed at achieving a stable pluralism.

Many of those experiments appeared to be failing by the end of the 1920s; and that in itself was a critically important reason for the appeal of the ideas Examples from my own field of research might include the development of a profession of social work that claimed to be a value-neutral foundation for cooperation between social workers of radically differing ideological orientation; the development of a psychoanalytic, rather than psychiatric, interpretation of deviance (neurosis replaces inherited brain defects); and the use of corporatism structures of governance within the welfare bureaucracy.

But they were a continuation of experiments undertaken in the Weimar period and shut down in 1933; and they did contribute to the stabilization of a pluralist democracy. As Paul Beats recently remarked, we should not present the postwar period as a redemptive tale of modernism triumphant and cast Nazism as merely a regressive interlude.

But neither should we dismiss the fact that such a narrative would be, so to speak, half true that the democratic welfare state is no less a product of modernity than is totalitarianism. Championed by the Nazis. The totalitarian and biological conception of national unity was in part a response to the apparent failure of a democratic and pluralist model of social and political integration.

1, March A second example is Geoff Eras masterful synthetic introduction to a collection of essays published in 1996 under the title Society, Culture, and the State in Germany, 18701930. Era set forth two research agendas derived from his review of recent hypotheses regarding the origins and nature of Nazism.

The second was that we explore the ways in which welfare policy contributed to Nazism, by examining the production of new values, new mores, new social practices, new ideas about the good and efficient society. Era suggested that we examine strategies of policing and constructions of criminality, notions of the normal and the deviant, the production and regulation of sexuality, the .

Why not examine the expanding hold of the language of right son the political imagination, or the disintegration of traditional authority under the impact of the explosive expansion of the public sphere? In the body of the volume, Elizabeth Domains, for example, pointed out that biopolitics did not automatically or naturally lead to the rise of National Socialism, but rather provided.

The political Right in Weimar with the opportunity to capitalize on a discursive strategy that could successfully compete with liberal and socialist strategies.63 This is correct; but The language of biopolitics was demonstrably one on which liberals, socialists, and advocates of a democratic welfare state could also capitalize, and did.

Or again, Jean Quarter remarked quite rightly, I believe that the most progressive achievements of the Weimar welfare state were completely embedded in biopolitical discourse. She also commented that Nazi policy was continuous with what passed as the ruling knowledge of the time and was a product of an extreme form of technocratic reason and early twentieth-century modernity dark side.

Dark, manipulative, murderous potential that lurks within, thus arriving at a healthy, mature sort of melancholy. But this gesture too often precludes asking what else biopolitics was doing, besides manipulating people, reducing them to pawns in the plans of technocrats, and paving the way for massacre.

In 1989 Dealer Peugeot argued that any adequate picture of modernity must include both its achievements and its pathologies social reform as well as Machbarkeitswahn, the growth of rational relations between people as well as the swelling instrumental goal rationality, the liberation of artistic and scientific creativity as well as the loss of substance and absence of limits.65 Yet he himself wrote nothing like such a balanced history, focusing exclusively on Nazism and on the negative half of each of these binaries; and that focus has remained characteristic of the literature as a whole. Biopolitics is good its key to promote democracy and check totalitarianism Dickinson 2004 Edward Ross (Professor at University of Cincinnati) Biopolitics, Fascism, Democracy: Some Reflections on Discourse About Modernity, Central European History, vol.

In fact, this entire discourse seems to be shaped by the fundamental suspicion that trying actively to create a better society is always and necessarily a bad thing an undemocratic, manipulative, oppressive thing.98 This assumption is rooted in a particular understanding of the micropolitics of expertise and professionalism. It is frequently argued that modern forms of technical knowledge and licensing create relations of dominance and subordination between experts and their clients.

Thus, Paul Handling, for example, asserted that, Professionalism, reinforced by official powers, meant that welfare defined new spheres for the exercising of coercion. It calls for the denial of rights, and of the grounds, of everything that cannot be assimilated for the delegitimization of the other.101 At its simplest, this view of the politics of expertise and professionalization is certainly plausible.

Micropolitical dynamic creates authoritarian, totalitarian, or homicidal potentials at the level of the state does not seem very tenable. Appears to be the great age of democracy in precisely those societies where these processes have been most in evidence.

What is more, the interventionist state has steadily expanded both the rights and the resources of virtually every citizen including those who were stigmatized and persecuted as biologically defective under National Socialism. Perhaps these processes have created an ever more restrictive iron cage of rationality in European societies.

But if so, it seems clear that there is no necessary correlation between rationalization and authoritarian politics; the opposite seems in fact to be at least equally true. Biopolitics is not totalitarian, in fact its good it has empirically leaded to the strengthening of liberal democracy which has on-balance prevented the violence they describe and been used against oppressive structures Dickinson 2004 Edward Ross (Professor at University of Cincinnati) Biopolitics, Fascism, Democracy: Some Reflections on Our Discourse About Modernity, Central European History, vol.

1, March the continuities between early twentieth-century biopolitical discourse and the practices of the welfare state in our own time are unmistakable. But that analysis can easily become superficial and misleading, because it obfuscates the profoundly different strategic and local dynamics of power in the two kinds of regimes.

Clearly the democratic welfare state is not only formally but also substantively quite different from totalitarianism. Above all, again, it has nowhere developed the fateful, radicalizing dynamic that characterized National Socialism (or for that matter Stalinist), the psychotic logic that leads from economist population management to mass murder.

In those cases in which the regime of rights does not successfully produce health, such a system can and historically does create compulsory programs to enforce it. But again, there are political and policy potentials and constraints in such a structuring of biopolitics that are very different from those of National Socialist Germany.

Democratic biopolitical regimes require, enable, and incite a degree of self-direction and participation that is functionally incompatible with authoritarian or totalitarian structures. Despite limitations imposed by political context and the slow pace of discursive change, I think this is the unmistakable message of the really very impressive waves of legislative and welfare reforms in the 1920s or the 1970s in Germany.90 Of course it is not yet clear whether this is an irreversible dynamic of such systems.

Nevertheless, such regimes are characterized by sufficient degrees of autonomy (and of the potential for its expansion) for sufficient numbers of people that I think it becomes useful to conceive of them as productive of a strategic configuration of power relations that might fruitfully be analyzed as a condition of liberty, just as much as they are productive of constraint, oppression, or manipulation. The concept power should not be read as a universal stifling night of oppression, manipulation, and entrapment, in which all political and social orders are gray, are essentially or effectively the same.

Power is a set of social relations, in which individuals and groups have varying degrees of autonomy and effective subjectivity. Discursive elements (like the various elements of biopolitics) can be combined in different ways to form parts of quite different strategies (like totalitarianism or the democratic welfare state); they cannot be assigned to one place in a structure, but rather circulate.

Empiricism, reason, evidence and warrants can increase the possibility of accurate forecasting, even if it's not perfect, it's enough to establish probabilities. Listening to those predictions and having an informed debate over their legitimacy instead of framing the issue in terms of a moral duty to protect human rights and stop WMD would have led to more rational policymaking.

Their argument would make all policymaking impossible its like saying we shouldn't have intervened in World War 2 to stop the Holocaust because we can't predict if it will be useful since we can't know consequences C.) State policymakers are obligated to make predictions, a nuclear world changes the calculus and means you have to assess probability. Their argument is thorough nonsense it would justify invading China because of the moral obligation to free Tibet outweighs the uncertainty whether China would respond with nuclear weapons this is silly and recklessSimply because our predictions cannot be guaranteed does not mean we should quit trying to prevent catastrophes they should use evidence to disprove our scenarios instead of rejecting foresight, itself*** Kurosawa 2004 Suzuki Constellations Volume 11, No 4, Cautionary Tales: The Global Culture of Prevention and the Work of Foresighted engaging in the labor of preventive foresight, the first obstacle that one is likely to encounter from some intellectual circles is a deep-seated skepticism about the very value of the exercise.

A radically postmodern line of thinking, for instance, would lead us to believe that it is pointless, perhaps even harmful, to strive for farsightedness in light of the aforementioned crisis of conventional paradigms of historical analysis. If, contra teleological models, history has no intrinsic meaning, direction, or endpoint to be discovered through human reason, and if, contra scientific futurism, prospective trends cannot be predicted without error, then the abyss of chronological inscrutability supposedly opens up at our feet.

Therefore, rather than embarking upon grandiose speculation about what may occur, we should adopt a pragmatism that abandons itself to the twists and turns of history; let us be content to formulate ad hoc responses to emergencies as they arise. Acknowledging the fact that the future cannot be known with absolute certainty does not imply abandoning the task of trying to understand what is brewing on the horizon and to prepare for crises already coming into their own.

In fact, the incorporation of the principle of fallibility into the work of prevention means that we must be ever more vigilant for warning signs of disaster and for responses that provoke unintended or unexpected consequences (a point to which I will return to the final section of this paper). In addition, from a normative point of view, the conflates the necessary recognition of the contingency of history with unwarranted assertions about the latter total opacity and indeterminacy.

Acceptance of historical contingency and of the self-limiting character of farsightedness places the duty of preventing catastrophe squarely on the shoulders of present generations. It becomes, instead, a result of human action shaped by decisions in the present including, of course, trying to anticipate and prepare for possible and avoidable sources of harm to our successors.

The ethical practice of prediction and prevention builds communal ties and energizes a citizen base capable of pressuring for real solutions to extinction Kurosawa 2004 Suzuki Constellations Volume 11, No 4, Cautionary Tales: The Global Culture of Prevention and the Work of Foresight dystopian imaginary, I am claiming that it can enable a novel form of transnational sociopolitical action, a manifestation of globalization from below that can be termed preventive foresight. We should not reduce the latter to a formal principle regulating international relations or an ensemble of policy prescriptions for official players on the world stage, since it is, just as significantly, a mode of ethicopolitical practice enacted by participants in the emerging realm of global civil society.

In other words, what I want to Rather than bemoaning the contemporary preeminence of an underscore is the work of farsightedness, the social processes through which civic associations are simultaneously constituting and putting into practice a sense of responsibility for the future by attempting to prevent global catastrophes. Although the labor of preventive foresight takes place in varying political and sociocultural settings and with different degrees of institutional support and access to symbolic and material resources it is underpinned by three distinctive features: dialog ism, publicity, and transnational ism.

In the first instance, preventive foresight is an intersubjective or biological process of address, recognition, and response between two parties in global civil society: the Warner, who anticipate and send out word of possible perils, and the audiences being warned, those who heed their interlocutors messages by demanding that governments and/or international organizations take measures to steer away from disaster. Groups like these are active in disseminating information and alerting citizens about looming catastrophes, lobbying states and multilateral organizations from the inside and pressuring them from the outside, as well as fostering public participation in debates about the future.

Foresight consists of forging ties between citizens; participating in the circulation of flows of claims, images, and information across borders; promoting an ethos of farsighted cosmopolitanism; and forming and mobilizing weak public that debate and struggle against possible catastrophes. Over the past few decades, states and international organization shave frequently been content to follow the lead of globally-minded civil society actors, who have been instrumental in placing on the public agenda a host of pivotal issues (such as nuclear war, ecological pollution, species extinction, genetic engineering, and mass human rights violations).

To my mind, this strongly indicates that if prevention of global crises is to eventually rival the assertion of short-term and narrowly defined rationales (national interest, profit, bureaucratic self-preservation, etc. ), weak public must begin by convincing or compelling official representatives and multilateral organizations to act differently; only then will farsightedness be in a position to move up and become institutionalized via strong public.7 Since the global culture of prevention remains a work in progress, the argument presented in this paper is poised between empirical and normative dimensions of analysis.

It proposes a theory of the practice of preventive foresight based upon already existing struggles and discourses, at the same time as it advocates the adoption of certain principles that would substantively thicken and assist in the realization of a sense of responsibility for the future of humankind. I will thereby proceed in four steps, beginning with a consideration of the shifting sociopolitical and cultural climate that is giving rise to farsightedness today (I).

Public aptitude for early warning about global cataclysms can overcome flawed conceptions of the futures essential inscrutability (II). From this will follow the claim that an ethos of farsighted cosmopolitanism of solidarity that extends to future generations can supplant the preeminence of short-termism with the help of appeals to the public moral imagination and use of reason (III).

In the final section of the paper, I will argue that the commitment of global civil society actors to norms of precaution and transnational justice can hone citizens faculty of critical judgment against abuses of the dystopian imaginary, thereby opening the way to public deliberation about the construction of an alternative world order (IV). But in the nature of things, private individuals will usually have more complete information on the peculiarities of their own circumstances and on the ramifications that alternative possible choices might have on them.

Public officials, in contrast, are relatively poorly informed as to the effects that their choices will have on individuals, one by one. That is enough to allow public policy-makers to use the utilitarian calculus if they want to use it at alto choose general rules of conduct.

Knowing aggregates and averages, they can proceed to calculate the utility payoffs from adopting each alternative possible general rules. Those who venture to predict, as I do here, should therefore proceed with humility, take care not to exhibit unwarranted confidence, and admit that hindsight is likely to reveal surprises and mistakes.

And by clarifying points of disagreement, making explicit forecasts helps those with contradictory views to frame their own ideas more clearly. Furthermore, trying to anticipate new events is a good way to test social science theories, because theorists do not have the benefit of hindsight and therefore cannot adjust their claims to fit the evidence (because it is not yet available).

In short, the world can be used as a laboratory to decide which theories best explain international politics. In that spirit I employ offensive realism to peer into the future, mindful of both the benefits and the hazards of trying to predict events.

This is just so stupid Its morally irresponsible it justifies risking the lives of thousands to protect a single person, it would create reckless policy actions, and it means that you could never kill someone who is going to kill your family because all life is infinite Calculation is inevitable every action we take involves a choice and an assessment of costs and benefits. If two people are drowning in a pool, and you can only save one of them you have to choose, and calculate otherwise, both will die while you try to figure out why Dillon and Campbell have so much of a debate following despite being atrocious writers.

Left to itself, the incalculable and giving idea of justice is always very close to the bad, even to the worst for it can always be reapportioned by the most perverse calculation. Not only must we calculate, negotiate the relation between the calculable and incalculable, and negotiate without the sort of rule that wouldn't have to reinvented there where we are cast, there where we find ourselves; but we must take it as far as possible, beyond the place where we find ourselves and beyond the already identifiable zones of morality or politics or law, beyond the distinction between national and international, public and private, and so on.

To keep this from being a truism or a triviality, we must recognize in it the following consequence: each advancement in politicization obliges one to reconsider, and so reinterpret, the very foundations of law such as they had been previously calculated or delimited.

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