The swelling may be caused by allergies, or repeated nasal or sinus infections. They can grow in size and number and cause your nasal tissue and bone to expand.
Nasal congestion Difficulty breathing through your nose Mouth breathing Decreased or lost sense of smell Runny nose Postnasal drip Dull headache or facial pain A rhino scope is a thin tube with a light and lens at the end.
A nasal endoscope is a bendable tube with a light and camera on the end. These may include pollen, pet dander, smoke, and mold.
Discuss treatment options with your healthcare providers to decide what care you want to receive. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatments.
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Sinuses are paired (right and left) air-filled pockets that circumscribe the nasal structures. The function of the sinuses is debated, but possibly include humidifying the air breathed through your nose and providing shape to your face.
It may be performed on an outpatient basis or as part of your stay in a hospital. However, you’ll need to remove any jewelry or metal objects you may be wearing before the test.
Nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancers are usually found because of signs or symptoms a person is having. A physical exam will be done, so the doctor can look for signs of nasal cavity or paranasal sinus cancer, as well as other health problems.
During the exam, the doctor will carefully check the parts of your nose and sinuses that are causing problems. He or she will also check for numbness, pain, swelling, and/or firmness in your face and the lymph nodes in your neck.
This doctor will carefully examine your nasal passages and the rest of your head and neck. Imaging tests use x -rays, magnetic fields, or other means to create pictures of the inside of your body.
MRI scans use radio waves and strong magnets instead of x -rays to make pictures of your insides. MRI scans are very helpful in looking at cancers of the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses.
They can also show if a tumor has spread into nearby soft tissues, like the eyeball, brain, or blood vessels. Both CT and MRI scans help find cancers of the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses and learn more about them.
A special scanner is then used to create pictures of the places where the radioactivity collected in your body. This lets the doctor compare areas of higher radioactivity on the PET with the detailed images from the CT scan.
Though these cancers rarely spread, a PET scan gives helpful information about your whole body. A biopsy is a procedure in which a doctor takes out a small piece of tissue (a sample) to be checked with a microscope.
Many types of biopsies can be used to diagnose nasal cavity or paranasal sinus cancer. In this type of biopsy, the doctor puts a thin, hollow needle right into a tumor or lymph node to take out cells and/or a few drops of fluid.
In these patients, FNA biopsy can show if the lymph node swelling is from cancer or if it's a response to an infection. If someone who has already been diagnosed with nasal cavity or paranasal sinus cancer has enlarged neck lymph nodes, a fine needle biopsy can tell if the lymph node swelling is caused by the spread of cancer.
Long, thin surgical tools can be passed through the endoscope to get a biopsy sample. Open (surgical) biopsy: For tumors inside the sinuses, the doctor may have to cut through the skin next to the nose and through the underlying bones to reach them.
These operations are covered in more detail in Surgery for Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer. The drug can be injected into the skin and nearby tissues or even put right on the inside of the nose to numb the area while the biopsy is done.
Sedation (where you are made very drowsy) or general anesthesia (where you are in a deep sleep) may be needed for endoscopic biopsies. Your doctor can usually make a diagnosis based on your answers to questions about your symptoms, a general physical exam and an examination of your nose.
Polyps may be visible with the aid of a simple lighted instrument. A narrow tube with a lighted magnifying lens or tiny camera (nasal endoscope) enables your doctor to perform a detailed examination inside your nose and sinuses.
Images obtained with computerized tomography (CT) can help your doctor pinpoint the size and location of polyps in deeper areas of your sinuses and evaluate the extent of swelling and irritation (inflammation). These studies may also help your doctor rule out other possible blockages in your nasal cavity, such as structural abnormalities or another type of cancerous or noncancerous growth.
Your doctor may suggest skin tests to determine if allergies are contributing to chronic inflammation. With a skin prick test, tiny drops of allergy-causing agents (allergens) are pricked into the skin of your forearm or upper back.
Your doctor or nurse then observes your skin for signs of allergic reactions. If you have a child diagnosed with nasal polyps, your doctor may suggest testing for cystic fibrosis, an inherited condition affecting the glands that produce mucus, tears, sweat, saliva and digestive juices.
The standard diagnostic test for cystic fibrosis is a noninvasive sweat test, which determines whether your child's perspiration is saltier than most people's sweat us. Your doctor may test your blood for low levels of vitamin D, which are associated with nasal polyps.
Chronic sinusitis, with or without polyps, is a challenging condition to clear up completely. You'll work with your health care team to develop the appropriate long-term treatment plan to manage your symptoms and to treat factors, such as allergies, that may contribute to chronic swelling (inflammation).
The treatment goal for nasal polyps is to reduce their size or eliminate them. Surgery may sometimes be needed, but it may not provide a permanent solution because polyps tend to recur.
Your doctor is likely to prescribe a corticosteroid nasal spray to reduce swelling and irritation. Nasal corticosteroids include fluticasone (Flonase Allergy Relief, Flo vent HF, Chance), budesonide (Rhinoceros), mometasone (Alone, Asian HF), triamcinolone (Escort Allergy 24HR), beclomethasone (Became A, Var Redialed, NASA) and ciclesonide (Maris, Alfresco, Antenna).
Because oral corticosteroids can cause serious side effects, you usually take them only for a limited period. Medication to treat nasal polyps and chronic sinusitis.
If you have nasal polyps and chronic sinusitis, your doctor may give you an injection of a medication called dupilumab (DuPont) to treat your condition. This medication may reduce the size of the nasal polyps and lessen congestion.
Your doctor may prescribe drugs to treat conditions that contribute to long-term swelling in your sinuses or nasal passages. Aspirin desensitization, under the care of an allergy specialist with experience in desensitization, may benefit some patients with nasal polyps and aspirin sensitivity.
The left illustration shows the frontal (A) and maxillary (B) sinuses, as well as the stomatal complex (C). In endoscopic sinus surgery (right illustration), your doctor uses an endoscope and tiny cutting tools to open the blocked passage and restore natural drainage (D).
If drug treatment doesn't shrink or eliminate nasal polyps, you may need endoscopic surgery to remove polyps and to correct problems with your sinuses that make them prone to inflammation and the development of polyps. In endoscopic surgery, the surgeon inserts a small tube with a lighted magnifying lens or tiny camera (endoscope) into your nostrils and guides it into your sinus cavities.
He or she uses tiny instruments to remove polyps and other substances that block the flow of fluids from your sinuses. Your surgeon may also enlarge the openings leading from your sinuses to your nasal passages.
After surgery, you'll likely use a corticosteroid nasal spray to help prevent the recurrence of nasal polyps. Your doctor may also recommend the use of a saltwater (saline) rinse to promote healing after surgery.
Researchers are studying the role of biologic drugs, including medications that treat severe asthma, in helping reduce nasal polyps and relieve symptoms. Biologics work by targeting specific cells or proteins to reduce irritation and swelling.
Early research suggests that the drugs may become options for people whose nasal polyps don't respond to corticosteroids or surgery. Explore Mayo Clinic studies testing new treatments, interventions and tests as a means to prevent, detect, treat or manage this disease.
If you have signs or symptoms of nasal polyps, you're likely to start by seeing your primary care physician. Because appointments can be brief and there's often a lot to discuss, it's a good idea to prepare ahead of time.
Here are some suggestions to help you get ready for your appointment and understand what to expect from your doctor. Write down all of your symptoms, even if they seem unrelated to your nose or sinuses.
Your doctor will want to know details about when your symptoms started and whether anything seems to make them better or worse. Having someone along can help you recall all the information provided during your appointment.
Your doctor will want to know if you're currently being treated for allergies, asthma or any other health conditions. Make a list of all your medications, including over-the-counter drugs and vitamins or supplements.
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Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2018. The relationship between serum vitamin D and chronic rhinosinusitis: A systematic review.