You can also call the Cancer Research UK nurses on freephone 0808 800 4040. Your doctor and radiographer make sure the benefits of having the test outweigh these risks.
The benefits of finding out what is wrong outweigh any risk there may be from radiation. But lymphoma can develop in any lymph node groups which are scattered all over the body, chest being one of the several sites.
They are a good way to look at bones and can show changes caused by cancer or other medical conditions. When you arrive, the radiographer might ask you to change into a hospital gown and remove your jewelry.
Unless your doctor thinks it’s urgent the results might take a couple of weeks. Waiting for test results can be a worrying time.
For support and information, you can also contact the Cancer Research UK nurses on freephone 0808 800 4040. Your doctor and radiographer make sure the benefits of having the test outweigh these risks.
The benefits of finding out what is wrong outweigh any risk there may be from radiation. Duration of adenopathy, association with fever, drenching sweats and/or weight loss would urge ct chest abdomen before biopsy of one of the nodes.
Most people with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) see their doctor because they have certain symptoms, or because they just don’t feel well and go in for a check-up. If a person has signs or symptoms that suggest HL, exams and tests will be done to find out for sure and, if so, to determine the exact type.
You'll be asked about symptoms, possible risk factors, family history, and other medical conditions. Next, the doctor will examine you (or your child), paying close attention to lymph nodes and other parts of the body that might be affected, including the spleen and liver.
The doctor also might order blood tests to look for signs of infection or other problems. If the doctor suspects that HL might be the problem, a biopsy of a swollen lymph node might be recommended.
If a small part of a larger tumor or node is removed, it's an incisional biopsy. If the node is just under the skin, the biopsy is fairly simple and can sometimes be done with numbing medicine (called local anesthesia).
But if the node is inside the chest or abdomen (belly), you'll be sedated or given general anesthesia (where drugs are used to put you in a deep sleep). A fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy uses a very thin, hollow needle attached to a syringe to take out (aspirate) a small amount of fluid and tiny bits of tissue.
If a node or tumor is deep inside the body, a CT scan or ultrasound (see below) can be used to guide the needle. If HL has already been diagnosed, needle biopsies are sometimes used to check changes (like swollen nodes) in other parts of the body that might be from the lymphoma spreading or coming back after treatment.
Most children having a bone marrow aspiration and biopsy are either given medicine to make them drowsy or are given general anesthesia, so they're asleep while it's done. Looking at the tissue samples under the microscope is often enough to diagnose HL (and what type it is), but sometimes more lab tests are needed.
CT's scans are useful for looking for HL in the neck, chest, abdomen (belly), and pelvis. For this procedure, a person lies on the CT scanning table while the doctor moves a biopsy needle through the skin and toward the area.
Like CT scans, MRIs show detailed images of soft tissues in the body. This test is rarely used in HL, but if the doctor is concerned about spread to the spinal cord or brain, MRI is very useful for looking at these areas.
For a PET scan, a slightly radioactive form of sugar is put into your blood. A special camera is then used to create a picture of the parts of the body where the radioactivity collected.
The picture is not detailed like a CT or MRI scan, but it can give helpful information about your whole body. They can help find small spots in the body that might be lymphoma, even if the area looks normal on a CT scan.
They can be used after treatment to help decide if an enlarged lymph node still has cancer or if it's just scar tissue. It travels to damaged areas of bone, and a special camera can then detect the radioactivity.
But bone scans can ’t show the difference between cancers and non-cancer problems, so more tests might be needed. Blood tests aren’t used to diagnose HL, but they can help your doctor get a sense of how advanced it is and how well you might tolerate certain treatments.
A high white blood cell count is another possible sign of HL, although it can also be caused by infection. A test called an erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) can help measure how much inflammation is in the body.
Hepatitis B and C virus test: Certain chemo drugs could cause problems if you have these infections. Lymphoma is a cancer that develops in the white blood cells of the lymphatic system.
Your doctor will perform a physical exam and may order blood tests or lymph node biopsy to help evaluate your condition. Treatment depends on the type and stage of the lymphoma as well as your age and overall health.
The lymphatic system includes a network of small channels similar to blood vessels that circulate fluid (called lymph), lymph nodes (also called glands), bone marrow and several organs, all of which are made up of lymphocytes. The type of lymphoma is determined by examining some cancer cells under a microscope.
Enlarged lymph nodes in the neck, armpits or groin unexplained weight loss fever drenching night sweats generalized itching fatigue loss of appetite coughing or trouble breathing pain in the abdomen, chest or bones swollen abdomen feeling full after only a small amount of food shortness of breath or cough Your primary doctor will begin by asking you about your medical history and symptoms and perform a physical exam.
Blood test results help determine how the liver and kidneys are functioning. This procedure is typically performed after lymphoma has been diagnosed to help determine if the disease has spread to the bone marrow.
Some patients with lymphoma undergo PET scanning after receiving therapy to determine if the cancer is responding to treatment. Ultrasound is also used to image the abdominal organs and kidneys, which may be affected by enlarged lymph nodes.
For pregnant women with lymphoma, MRI and ultrasound may be used to stage the disease while protecting the fetus from harmful radiation. Treatment options are based on the type and stage of lymphoma and the age and overall health of the patient.
Patients with lymphoma may be treated with external beam therapy in which beams of high energy x -rays are generated by a machine outside the patient and directed at the tumor and cancerous lymph nodes. Monoclonal antibody therapy (also called targeted therapy) : This is a treatment involving laboratory-produced molecules called monoclonal antibodies that are engineered to recognize and bind to the surface of cancer cells.
This treatment is used for many patients with “B-cell” lymphoma and may be combined with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. Rituximab Bedouin (Debris®), which combines a chemotherapy drug with a monoclonal antibody that attaches to a specific molecule (CD30) on the surface of Hodgkin disease cells.
Biologic therapy : This treatment involves natural or laboratory-made substances designed to boost, direct or restore the body's natural defenses against cancer, or to interfere with specific biologic pathways within the lymphoma cells. Interferon is one type of biologic therapy that affects the division of cancer cells and can slow tumor growth.