We can also help you make sure you understand and implement effective programs for operating non-ionizing radiation producing machines like lasers. I'd like to Show you my latest project, a homemade ray machine.
To produce rays using a simple vacuum rectifier tube you'll need a high voltage power supply. Toucan use several vacuum tubes for producing rays.
Of course toucan take real ray tubes f.e. To protect everyone from the rays you have to put the vacuum tube in a safe housing.
My housing is made of Wood with 3 layers of lead at the outside. Only through a small window covered with thin aluminum foil the rays can go out.
As toucan see in the circuit, the ray tube is connected to the high voltage. The Output voltage is being measured with an ammeter and a 1 Ohm resistor.
In the meantime I run out of the room and switch on the power with my remote control. Within the 30 seconds I switch on and off 3-4 times to prevent overheating of the vacuum tube and arcs.
If the prospect of exploring fresh electromagnetic territory sounds interesting to any of these amateurs, I can promise good hunting in the 10 -8 -centimeter region and for a total investment of less than $20. This shot resulted from his first experiment with X -rays and illustrates what can happen when a fellow with a sharp eye follows a happy hunch.
This almost forgotten gadget, a close relative of the Tesla coil, can step up low voltages 1,000 times or more. In the course of stepping up the voltage the Odin coil also increases the frequency of the current, so that it tends to flow through the skin and away from vital organs such as the heart.
my original Odin coil, Simon's recalls, was part of an ultraviolet lamp with which I tested mineral specimens for fluorescence. For no particular reason I decided to replace the evacuated quartz bulb, which produced the ultraviolet rays, with an old radio tube of the 01 type.
to obtain the answer to this question I put a narrowband of tinfoil around the top of the tube and grounded it as a substitute for the electrode previously represented by my hand. I then fished a small block of wood, which happened to have two screws in it, from the trash box and placed it on a sheet of photographic film wrapped in black paper.
When I had developed the film, I discovered a wonderful radiograph of the screws plus a lifetime hobby that should appeal to anyone interested in physics. Human evolution is the result of mutations caused by, among other agents, cosmic rays and the radiations of radioactive elements in the earth's crust.
Any radiation added by man alters the rate of mutation, and is rightly a cause of deep concern. In addition to providing a source of X -rays for radiographs, a generator of X -rays in combination with accessories enables you to measure the charge of the electron, to study the structure of crystals, to observe the wave-particle duality of matter and radiation, and to probe other microcosmic corners.
On the other hand, a thick sheet of flint glass, which transmits radio waves and light with no appreciable loss, stops X -rays. Within weeks of the description of X -rays by Wilhelm Konrad Röntgen in 1895, surgeons heralded them as a tool of the first importance.
They are characterized chiefly by extremely short wavelength about one ten-thousandth the length of visible light waves. When the emission accompanies the disintegration of a radioactive substance such as radium, it is called gamma radiation.
Consider a point charge an electron surrounded by a symmetrical electromagnetic field and moving through space at constant velocity. Work expended in accelerating the central charge is carried away by the wave as radiant energy, at a velocity which depends on the nature of the jelly.
The length of the wave depends upon the abruptness with which the central charge is either disturbed or made to change direction. Violent disturbances require the investment of more work than gentle ones, and result in proportionately shorter and more energetic waves.
The normal, stable atom emits no radiation unless it is acted upon by an external source of energy. This represents the shifting of a center of charge, and the excess energy is radiated into space by the accompanying electromagnetic wave.
The abruptness of the jump, and hence the length of the wave, depends upon the attraction of the positive nucleus for the planetary electron. When weakly bound electrons occupying an orbit remote from the nucleus make such jumps, the length of the radiated wave measures on the order of 25 thousandths of an inch the wavelength of light.
Hence, a series of jumps follow as electrons from orbits still more remote from the nucleus move in to fill the succession with gaps [see lower diagram, Fig. In the meantime the atom has emitted a series of waves at progressively lower frequencies, beginning with X -rays and extending through ultraviolet radiation and visible light to heat.
Hence, when a stream of bombarding electrons plays on a target composed of massive atoms, the emission of radiant energy includes: (1) X -rays liberated by the acceleration of planetary electrons, characteristic of the kind of atoms comprising the target, and (2) X -rays that span a continuous band of frequencies from the ultraviolet range to those of almost infinitesimal wavelength. It was this continuous or white X -radiation, arising from the bombardment of silicon nuclei in the glass of a Crookes tube, that led Röntgen to his discovery.
By shaping the cathode in the form of a paraboloid, for example, the electron stream could be focused sharply on the metallic target composed of atoms more massive than silicon. X -rays liberated at the spot were more energetic and cast sharper shadows than those from the broad expanse of glass.
Electrostatic machines for the production of accelerating voltages grew in size until some featured a spinning disk of plate glass seven feet across, capable of generating 200,000 volts and currents up to five milliamperes. The limitation was removed in 1913 when W. D. Coolidge of the General Electric Company succeeded in making ductile filaments of tungsten, which he substituted for the cold cathode of the gas tubes.
This problem was first tackled by using tungsten, with its high melting temperature, at both ends of the tube, then by cooling the target with water, and finally by focusing the bombarding electrons in a small spot near the edge of a motor-driven disk made of tungsten. A number of years ago Simon's shipped his first machine to George L. Clark at the University of Illinois who, after testing it, reported to the journal Radiology : Simon's apparatus proves that X -rays can be produced for experimental purposes by a unit which can be built for a very small fraction of the cost of an installation of standard commercial equipment.
The machine, when in operation, will produce a beam of X -rays easily detected for a distance of several feet in all directions. With are meter measurements we determined the intensity of the rays to be three fourths of a Röntgen unit per minute at a distance of three feet.
The explanation of this copious radiation, compared with that of a Crookes tube, appears to lie in the magnesium coating. For this reason (plus the fact that he is an inveterate experimenter) Simon snow designs his own tubes and has them manufactured by a local glassblower.
He rarely makes two alike, for the same reason that amateur telescope makers seldom build two identical instruments. The job is simplified if toucan lay hands on a vibrator of the type used in the spark coil of a Model-T Ford.
As shown by Roger Hayward's diagram, Figure 231, and the general view in Figure 232, the vibrator consists of a core of soft magnetic iron equipped with an armature of soft magnetic iron and a set of breaker points. The primary is wound with five turns of ¼-inch copper tubing on a 2¼-inch plastic form three inches in diameter.
The inner end of the secondary is threaded through a four-inch length of ½-inch plastic tubing and soldered to the inner face of a chromium-plated chair glide, which serves as the high-voltage terminal. The ends of the primary form are then closed with disks of ¼-inch plastic and secured in place with screws at the edge.
The chair glide is lifted temporarily and enough transformer oil or potting compound poured through the ½-inch tube to fill the interior. If any stray radiation can be detected on a nearby radio or TV receiver after the apparatus is assembled as described, it will be necessary to insert a low-pass filter at the point where the power cord enters the housing.