Is 405 An Interstate

Ellen Grant
• Saturday, 27 November, 2021
• 24 min read

North end I-5 near San Fernando LocationCounties Orange, Los Angeles Highway system US 399US 466 I- 405 in the Repulsed Passage freeway's congestion problems are legendary, leading to jokes that the road was numbered 405 because traffic moves at “four or five” miles per hour, or because drivers had spent “four or five” hours to travel anywhere.

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Indeed, average speeds as low as 5 miles per hour (8.0 km/h) are routinely recorded during morning and afternoon commutes, and its interchanges with the Ventura Freeway (US 101) and with the Santa Monica Freeway (I-10) each consistently rank among the five most congested freeway interchanges in the United States. As a result of these congestion problems, delays passing through the entire Los Angeles metropolitan area using this bypass route instead of merely using the primary route I-5 through Downtown may be present.

The final section covering most of Orange County opened in 1969. Construction required the already existing Mulholland Highway to be re-routed 1.1 miles (1.8 km) to the south along a new 579-foot-long (176 m) bridge, the Mulholland Drive Bridge, to span I- 405.

A section of I- 405 was closed over the weekend of Friday, July 15, 2011, as part of the Repulsed Pass Improvements Project. Before the closing, local radio DJs and television newscasts referred to it as “Armageddon” and “Apocalypse”, parodying the notion of Armageddon and the Apocalypse, since it was anticipated that the closure would severely impact traffic.

In reality, traffic was lighter than normal across a wide area. The California Department of Transportation (Cal trans) reported that fewer vehicles used the roads than usual, and those who did travel by road arrived more quickly than on a normal weekend.

The Metrolink commuter train system recorded its highest-ever weekend ridership since it began operating in 1991. Ridership was 50% higher than the same weekend in 2010, and 10% higher than the previous weekend ridership record, which occurred during the U2 360° Tour in June 2011.

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In response to JetBlue Airlines offer of special flights between Bob Hope Airport in Burbank and Long Beach Airport, a distance of only 29 miles (47 km), for $4, a group of cyclists did the same journey in one and a half hours, compared to two and a half hours by plane (including a drive to the airport from West Hollywood 90 minutes in advance of the flight and travel time to the end destination). There was also some debate about whether the Los Angeles area could benefit from car-free weekends regularly.

Researchers at the University of California, Los Angeles used the closure of I- 405 to study particulate matter air pollution. The $1 billion Repulsed Pass Improvements Project added a high-occupancy vehicle lane and associated changes to freeway entrances, exits, and underpasses along a 10-mile stretch through the Repulsed Pass between I-10 and U.S. 101/Ventura Boulevard.

The project was completed as a design-build in contrast to the traditional design-bid-build used typically in infrastructure improvement. This section of I- 405 was closed for a weekend in mid-July 2011 to demolish the Mulholland Drive Bridge, and a 10-mile (16 km) section was closed for the last weekend of September 2012.

Camilla was the name for the- 405 closure on President's Day Weekend 2014. On May 23, 2014, the 10-mile (16 km) high-occupancy vehicle lane was opened to traffic.

Aerial view from the north of Interstate405's interchange with I-105 near Los Angeles International Airport from directly above Arbor Vitae Street; the hills of the Palos Verdes Peninsula are visible in the distance. Proposed changes between the Manchester and Century Boulevard interchanges in the City of Inglewood are to provide a new southbound on-ramp and a new northbound off-ramp for Arbor Vitae Street, to reconstruct and widened the Arbor Vitae Street over-bridge and replace the Century Boulevard over crossing structure.

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This work would reduce congestion on the approach to LAX. The California Department of Transportation has not yet issued a start date for this work.

The Orange County Transportation Authority is currently preparing the design plans to add a High-occupancy toll (HOT) express lane and one mixed flow lane in each direction between SR 73 in Costa Mesa and I-605 in Seal Beach. The- 405 Improvement Project started construction in 2018 and is scheduled to be completed in 2023.

Simpson, who was accused of murdering his ex-wife Nicole Brown Simpson and waiter Ron Goldman, took to the freeway in a white Ford Bronco (driven by former teammate Al Cowlings) with police in pursuit. A widely televised low-speed chase ensued and ended hours later when Simpson returned to his Brentwood, Los Angeles, home and surrendered to law enforcement.

Tennis Cosby, the only son of Bill Cosby, was murdered along I- 405 in Los Angeles on January 16, 1997, while fixing a flat tire. On March 10, 2019, the portion of I- 405 between the Ventura Freeway (US 101) and Burbank Boulevard in the Sherman Oaks area was closed in both directions as a propane tanker truck carrying more than 9,000 US gallons (34,000 l) of flammable gas overturned along the southbound lanes of I- 405.

The Swedish rock band Europe's song “California 405 is featured on their 2015 studio album War of Kings. Chuck Lorre used an end-of-show vanity card in 2013 to berate workers on the Interstate for their apparent lack of progress after five years.

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The Jimmy Eat World song “If You Don't, Don't”, from the album Bleed America includes the line “Don't you know I'm thinking (know I'm thinking), driving 405 past midnight”. The song “Drive” on Halsey's 2015 album Badlands uses the story of a reckless drive on the- 405 to frame its relatively unstructured lyrics.

Archived from the original (XLS file) on June 30, 2015. ^ Santa Monica College Corsair News Article Archived August 15, 2007, at the Payback Machine ^ Office of Highway Policy Information (July 27, 2010).

“Most Travelled Urban Highways Average Annual Daily Traffic”. Sacramento: California Office of Legislative Counsel.

2014 Named Freeways, Highways, Structures and Other Appurtenances in California. “Four ways the 405 freeway project has not made your life better”.

Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. During 53 hours of closure, the north side of the Mulholland Bridge will be demolished as part of the $1 billion Repulsed Pass Improvements Project.

interstate interchange angeles los stack aaroads california taken county north passes through
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Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. “Camilla lane closures on the 405 Freeway begin tonight”.

^ “Carpool lane on North 405 Freeway opens”. Interstate 405 : On- and Off-Ramp Improvements at Arbor Vitae Street” (PDF).

405 Freeways closed in Sherman Oaks after tanker carrying 9,400 gallons of propane overturns”. ^ As told in track nine of their iTunes Originals Album ^ Sherman, Maria (August 21, 2015).

^ California Department of Transportation, All Traffic Volumes on CSS, 2005 and 2006 ^ 405 Freeway NB Montana Avenue Off ramp Dies At 57”. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Interstate405 (California).

Interstate highway bypassing Seattle, Washington North end I-5 / SR 525 in Lynnwood LocationCounties King, Snohomish Highway system SR 401SR 409 Interstate405 (I- 405) is a north-south auxiliary Interstate Highway serving the Seattle region of Washington, United States.

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It bypasses Seattle east of Lake Washington, traveling through the Eastside area of King and Snohomish counties, providing an alternate route to I-5. The 30-mile (48 km) freeway serves the cities of Renton, Bellevue, Kirkland, and Bothell.

The Eastside highway was originally built in the early 20th century to connect cities along the lake and was formally added to the state highway system in 1937 as Secondary State Highway 2A (SSH 2A). A freeway replacement for SSH 2A was proposed in the 1940s by the state government and designated as I- 405 as part of the federal Interstate Highway program, with the first section beginning construction in 1956 and completed in 1965.

It was initially signed as SR 405 until the freeway was fully completed in 1971; since then, the highway has been expanded to add lanes for high-occupancy vehicles and toll users. I- 405 is one of the most congested highways in the Seattle area and is known for its meandering “S-curves” through Renton, which were straightened in the 1990s.

It is listed as part of the National Highway System, identifying routes that are important to the national economy, defense, and mobility, and the state's Highway of Statewide Significance program, recognizing its connection to major communities. The highway is maintained by the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSD OT), who conduct an annual survey of traffic volume that is expressed in terms of average annual daily traffic (AAT), a measure of traffic volume for any average day of the year.

Average daily traffic volumes on I- 405 in 2016 ranged from a minimum of 76,000 at its southern terminus in Tequila to 209,000 in Downtown Bellevue. Approximately 86 percent of peak-direction lane miles on I- 405 are rated as “routinely congested” by WSD OT and the highway accounted for over 30 percent of delays on the Seattle area's urban freeways from 2013 to 2017.

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The HOT lanes are controlled through a series of designated access points and direct ramps located along I- 405. Tolls are collected electronically through Good to Go transponders by overhead sensors or via license plate cameras for mail billing with a surcharge.

The variable weekday toll rates are set according to traffic congestion, ranging from $0.75 to a maximum of $10, while weekends and federal holidays are toll-free. HOT lane tolls are waived for high-occupancy vehicles with three or more passengers during peak periods and two or more passengers during the mid-day when using the “Overpass” that can toggle between tolled and HOV modes.

The freeway turns northeast and runs below several hills with residential neighborhoods overlooking downtown Renton. I- 405 intersects SR 515 in a half-diamond interchange and then enters a series of “s-curves” as it travels around the east side of downtown Renton.

After crossing the Cedar River upstream from the Renton Public Library, the freeway passes through a public park and intersects SR 169 and SR 900 at two separate interchanges. The southern junction, with SR 169, is a partial cloverleaf interchange at Bronson Way, while the northern junction with SR 900 is a half-diamond that also marks the beginning of a short concurrency with the latter.

The concurrent I- 405 and SR 900 then pass the Ken worth truck plant and the Renton Landing shopping center near the Boeing Renton Factory before reaching a junction with Sunset Boulevard, which carries SR 900 east towards Issaquah. I- 405 heading into downtown Bellevue freeway continues north from the interchange towards Downtown Bellevue, passing the Mercer Slough estuary and the historic Wilbur ton Trestle as it widens to ten lanes.

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I- 405 travels through several interchanges and forms the eastern border of Downtown Bellevue, a major office district, separating it from the retail areas of Wilbur ton. It intersects Northeast 4th Street in a diamond interchange, Northeast 6th Street in an HOV-only Texas T interchange serving the Bellevue Transit Center and under the future East Link light rail guide way, and Northeast 8th Street in a cloverleaf interchange near the Overtake Medical Center.

A set of four HOT lanes begin at the Northeast 6th Street ramp, traveling north with limited entry and exit points. I- 405 in Snohomish County- 405 enters Snohomish County and travels northwest through a wooded area along North Creek before reaching an interchange with the Bothell–Everett Highway, which continues north to Mill Creek as SR 527.

The interchange, located in the Canyon Park industrial area, is adjacent to a park and ride with a dedicated pedestrian bridge that serves as the southern terminus of the Swift Green Line. The freeway continues northwest through residential neighborhoods and gains a set of auxiliary lanes in the shoulder that are opened to traffic during limited periods, restricted to transit use in the southbound direction and all traffic northbound using a series of overhead signs.

I- 405 continues northwest, crossing over SR 524 without an interchange, and terminates at a clover stack interchange with I-5 east of the Alderwood Mall in Lynnwood. The freeway continues north as SR 525, which connects to SR 99 and serves the Mutilated terminal on the Washington State Ferries system.

A north-south road between Kirkland and the Bellevue area was completed in 1908 and gradually extended south to Renton and north to Bothell, forming the modern Lake Washington Boulevard. Lake Washington Boulevard was fully paved by 1932 and designated by the state legislature as part of Secondary State Highway 2A (SSH 2A) in 1937.

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SSH 2A traveled north from US 10 in Renton to Primary State Highway 2 (PUSH 2) in Bothell, continuing onward to US 99 in Everett. An east–west road between Buried and Renton was designated as SSH 1L.

The Bothell–Everett section of SSH 2A was later removed from the state highway system in 1943. Planning for a series of upgrades to transform SSH 2A into a suitable bypass of US 99 around Seattle began in 1948 at the behest of the state director of highways.

The East Pacific Highway Association, formed to plan a major highway to the east of US 99 from Tennis to the Canadian border, lobbied the state legislature for funding to complete the 25-mile (40 km) link between Renton and Joinville. The state government approved plans for the Eastside highway in 1952 as part of its limited-access highway network and allocated funds to begin acquisition of right-of-way along the corridor.

The federal Bureau of Public Roads included the Eastside bypass of Seattle in its 1955 recommendation for a national system of Interstate routes. The system was approved by the signing of the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, which included funds for upgrading SSH 2A into a freeway.

SSH 2A and the eastern portion of SSH 1L were replaced in 1957 by the Renton branch of PUSH 1, created to consolidate the bypass into a single numbered highway. The Washington State Highway Commission had approved accelerated plans to build new two-lane sections of the future freeway corridor that would be designed to accommodate later expansions to four lanes under Interstate standards.

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The American Association of State Highway Officials approved Interstate405 as the designation for the Seattle bypass freeway in November 1958. The proposed route of I- 405 between Bothell and a northern interchange with I-5 near Lynnwood was originally planned to follow Swamp Creek from Kenmore, but was later moved further northeast to North Creek after opposition from residents.

In 1964, the system of primary and secondary state highways was removed in favor of new state routes, and PUSH 2A was renumbered SR 405. The first segment of the interstate to be completed was between Tequila and Renton, costing $12.6 million and opening to traffic on August 31, 1965.

The interchange with I-5 at Tequila opened in November 1967, costing $16 million to construct and covering 209 acres (85 ha). By 1966, the remaining sections of SR 405 were fully renumbered to I- 405.

The final section of I- 405 to be built, between Joinville and Lynnwood, was opened to traffic in November 1969. Further construction expanded I- 405 to six lanes, including a section near Joinville that involved the demolition of recent bridges that were too narrow to support three lanes per direction.

In the 1960s, the state government studied the construction of an outer freeway bypass due to expected traffic demand on I- 405. A report released in 1970 concluded that the outer bypass, nicknamed I-605, would not be necessary and recommended expanding I- 405 to eight lanes in some sections.

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The proposal had also been controversial with residents around Lake Sammamish, around which the freeway corridor was moved several times. One of the major construction projects on the highway was straightening the s-curves in Renton.

This project began in 1990, and was estimated to cost $70 million. Also, during this time the portion of the highway between I-5 and South Renton was being repaved and HOV lanes were being added.

The construction of one lane in each direction between SE 8th and I-90, replacing the Wilbur ton Tunnel. The construction of one northbound lane from NE 70th to NE 124th, and one southbound lane from SR 522 to SR 520.

In 2005, the “Renton to Bellevue Project” was added as part of the Nickel Project, and would have added two lanes in each direction between SR 169 and I-90. However, in November 2007, voters rejected the ballot measure which would have provided the additional funds necessary for this project.

The website “Road to Ruin” ranks the widening of I- 405 as the fourth most wasteful highway project in the United States. The project is designed to help traffic move more smoothly on I- 405.

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A 2008 construction project demolished the Wilbur ton Tunnel, which formerly covered a portion of the freeway between Factorial and Bellevue and carried the NSF Joinville Subdivision. The City of Bellevue plans to construct a lidded park over a section of I- 405 between 4th and 6th streets as part of its “Grand Connection” program.

The- 405 corridor is served by several express bus routes operated by Sound Transit, King County Metro, and Community Transit. They connect several hubs that are centered around Bellevue Transit Center, accessed via the HOV ramp at Northeast 6th Street in Downtown Bellevue, and continue beyond I- 405 to Everett, Buried, and the Green River Valley.

The freeway also has several large park-and-ride facilities that are served by flyer stops and direct access HOV ramps. In 2017, 202 bus trips on the- 405 corridor carried approximately 6,800 passengers during peak periods on an average weekday.

The Sound Transit 3 ballot measure, passed in 2016, includes $1 billion in funding for a bus rapid transit (BRT) system covering the entirety of the- 405 corridor using the expanded HOT lanes. The Stride lines will serve eleven stations, mostly at existing flyer stops, and have a maximum frequency of 10 minutes during peak periods when it opens in 2025.

One of the new stations on the BRT corridor, at Northeast 85th Street in Kirkland, is planned to include reconstruction of the existing cloverleaf interchange at an estimated cost of $300 million. ^ a b Multimodal Planning Division (February 4, 2021).

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Washington State Department of Transportation. ^ “Table 2: Auxiliary Routes of the Dwight D. Eisenhower National System Of Interstate and Defense Highways”.

^ National Highway System: Seattle, WA (PDF) (Map). ^ “Transportation Commission List of Highways of Statewide Significance” (PDF).

“Washington's I- 405 express tolls should rise past $10 to keep traffic moving, new report says”. “I- 405 toll lanes to be free on nights, weekends starting Friday”.

^ a b c d e f g Washington State Department of Transportation (2014). Washington State Highways, 2014–2015 (PDF) (Map).

“New I- 405 on ramp, off ramp at Talbot Road in Renton to open Tuesday afternoon”. “Straight talk on S-curves, traffic lingo”.

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“Renton tired of paying a lot, getting few buses, no light rail from Sound Transit”. “New 4-mile stretch of pedestrian/cyclist trail opens on Eastside rail corridor”.

“As tech firms grow, Bellevue braces for commuter boom”. ^ “First elevated section of East Link extension under construction in downtown Bellevue” (Press release).

“New bus station in Kirkland will be a $300 million gamble”. “Kirkland eyes aerial tram to connect to new freeway bus station”.

“Kirkland looks at Totem Lake area traffic study”. ^ “Braided ramps to northbound I- 405 and SR 522 in Bothell closed this weekend”.

Washington State Department of Transportation. “CT plans a new rapid-transit bus route between Canyon Park and Paine Field”.

traffic coming relief freeway entrance sign north interstate via email
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Washington State Department of Transportation. “The steam scow Squad begins ferrying passengers across Lake Washington in 1884”.

“Getting on the map: The desire to cross Snoqualmie Pass was one impetus for developing roadways to the Eastside”. Washington State Highway Commission.

“Road Bill Lists $168,000,000 For Tacoma-Everett Highway; Expressway Work Will Begin Soon”. “Senate O. K's Plan to Speed Freeway Work”.

^ Washington State Department of Highways (1964). Washington State Highways: Official Highway Map and Tourist Guide of the State of Washington (Map).

^ “Nickel Funding Package Enacted for Transportation by the Washington State Legislature” (PDF). Washington State Department of Transportation.

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^ “I- 405 express toll lanes will open on Sept. 27” (Press release). Washington State Department of Transportation.

“City Council pursues lid park over I- 405 as part of Grand Connection”. ^ Metro Transit System: Northeast Area (Map).

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