Radio Can Zone Jeunesse

James Lee
• Saturday, 27 November, 2021
• 9 min read

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(Source: ici.radio-canada.ca)


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When commercial airplanes are struck by lightning, the result can range from no damage to serious damage that requires extensive repairs that can take the airplane out of service for an extended period of time. Having an understanding of the typical effects of lightning strikes and proper damage inspection procedures can prepare operators to act quickly when a lightning strike is reported to apply the most effective maintenance actions.

(Source: ici.radio-canada.ca)

This article helps maintenance and flight crews understand lightning-strike phenomena and helps operators understand lightning-strike damage inspection requirements and associated effective repairs that improve lightning-strike maintenance efficiency. In the rest of the world, lightning tends to occur most near the equator because the warmth in this region contributes to convection, creating widespread thunderstorms nearly daily.

Areas of the highest activity are shown in orange, red, brown, and black. Areas of low activity are white, gray, purple, and blue.

The numbered scale represents lightning flashes per square kilometer per year. This map shows the global distribution of lightning April 1995–February 2003 from the combined observations of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) optical transient detector (April 1995–March 2000) and land information systems (January 1998–February 2003) instruments.

The reason is that lightning activity is more prevalent between 5,000 to 15,000 feet (1,524 to 4,572 meters) altitude (see fig. The amount and type of damage an airplane experiences when struck by lightning can vary greatly, depending on factors such as the energy level of the strike, the attachment and exit locations, and the duration of the strike.

The highest probability for lightning attachment to an airplane is the outer extremities, such as the wing tip, nose, or rudder. Lightning strikes occur most often during the climb and descent phases of flight at an altitude of 5,000 to 15,000 feet (1,524 to 4,572 meters).

(Source: ici.radio-canada.ca)

The probability of a lightning strike decreases significantly above 20,000 feet (6,096 meters). Seventy percent of all lightning strikes occur during the presence of rain.

Most lightning strikes affecting airplanes occur during spring and summer. Although 70 percent of lightning-strike events occur during precipitation, lightning can affect airplanes up to five miles away from the electrical center of the cloud.

Typically, first attachment is to the radome, forward fuselage, nacelle, espionage, or wing tip. Lightning is initiated at the airplane’s leading edges, which ionize, creating a strike opportunity.

During the initial stages of a lightning strike on an airplane, a glow may be seen on the nose or wing tips caused by ionization of the air surrounding the leading edges or sharp points on the airplane’s structure. In the next stage of the strike, a stepped leader may extend off the airplane from an ionized area seeking the large amount of lightning energy in a nearby cloud.

At this point, passengers and crew may see a flash and hear a loud noise when lightning strikes the airplane. Significant events are rare because of the lightning protection engineered into the airplane and its sensitive electronic components.

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(Source: ici.radio-canada.ca)

As the strike pulses, the leader reattaches itself to the fuselage or other structure at other locations while the airplane is in the electric circuit between the cloud regions of opposite polarity. Current travels through the airplane’s conductive exterior skin and structure and exits out another extremity, such as the tail, seeking the opposite polarity or ground.

Pilots may occasionally report temporary flickering of lights or short-lived interference with instruments. Large current flowing from the lightning strike in the airplane structure can cause this magnetization.

The thickness of the metal surface is sufficient to protect the airplane’s internal spaces from a lightning strike. The metal skin also protects against the entrance of electromagnetic energy into the electrical wires of the airplane.

Boeing performs testing that ensures the adequacy of lightning protection. The large amount of data gathered from airplanes in service constitutes an important source of lightning-strike protection information that Boeing uses to make improvements in lightning-strike damage control that will reduce significant lightning-strike damage if proper maintenance is performed.

Composite structure expanded foils, wire mesh, aluminum flame spray coating, embedded metallic wire, metallic picture frames, diverted strips, metallic foil liners, coated glass fabric, and bonded aluminum foil. Technicians may find and identify lightning-strike damage by understanding the mechanisms of lightning and its attachment to airplanes.

Having a basic understanding of lightning strikes will assist technicians in performing effective maintenance. In metal structures, lightning damage usually shows as pits, burn marks, or small circular holes.

Direct effects of a lightning strike can be identified by damage to the airplane’s structure, such as melt through, resistive heating, pitting to structure, burn indications around fasteners, and even missing structure at the airplane’s extremities, such as the vertical stabilizer, wing tips, and horizontal stabilizer edges (see fig. Airplane structure can also be crushed by the shock waves present during the lightning strike.

Another indication of lightning strike is damage caused to bonding straps. These straps can become crushed during a lightning strike due to the high electromagnetic forces.

Clockwise from upper left: Lightning damage to a horizontal stabilizer, rudder, antenna, and bond jumper. Because the airplane flies more than its own length during the time it takes a strike to begin and finish, the entry point will change as the flash reattaches to other spots aft of the initial entry point.

Evidence of this is seen in strike inspections where multiple burns are seen along the airplane’s fuselage (see fig. When a lightning strike moves along an airplane, it can cause “swept stroke” damage.

Lightning can also damage composite airplane structures if protection finish is not applied, properly designed, or adequate. This is the type of damage that can occur if a lightning protection finish is not applied or is inadequate.

When looking at the areas of entrance and exit, maintenance personnel should examine the structure carefully to find all the damage that has occurred. The critical system components, wire bundles, and bonding straps must be verified as airworthy prior to flight.

Airplane lightning-strike zones are defined by SAE Aerospace Recommended Practices (ARP) 5414 (see fig. Airplane lightning zones as defined by SAE Aerospace Recommended Practices 5414.

Zone DesignationDescriptionDefinition1AFirst return stroke zone All areas of the airplane surfaces where a first return is likely during lightning channel attachment with a low expectation of flash hang on.1BFirst return stroke zone with a long hang all areas of the airplane surfaces where a first return is likely during lightning channel attachment with a low expectation of flash hang on.1CTransition zone for first return stroke areas of the airplane surfaces where a first return stroke of reduced amplitude is likely during lightning channel attachment with a low expectation of flash hang on.2ASwept stroke zone All areas of the airplane surfaces where a first return of reduced amplitude is likely during lightning channel attachment with a low expectation of flash hang on.2BSwept stroke zone with long hang all areas of the airplane surfaces into which a lightning channel carry subsequent return stroke is likely to be swept with a high expectation of flash hang on.3Strike locations other than Zone 1 and Zone 2Those surfaces not in Zone 1A, 1B, 1C, 2A, or 2B, where any attachment of the lightning channel is unlikely, and those portions of the airplane that lie beneath or between the other zones and/or conduct a substantial amount of electrical current between direct or swept stroke attachment points. Figure 9: Airplane lightning zones. Areas of an airplane that are prone to lightning strikes are indicated by zone.

Zone 1 indicates an area likely to be affected by the initial attachment of a strike. Zone 3 indicates areas that may experience conducted currents without the actual attachment of a lightning strike.

In Zone 2, an initial entry or exit point is a rare event, but in such a case, a lightning channel may be pushed back from an initial entry or exit point. In summary, any entrance and exit points must be identified in Zones 1, 2, or 3 so that the immediate areas around them can be thoroughly examined and repaired if necessary.

Operators should refer to applicable maintenance procedures as the authoritative source for inspection/repair instructions. For composite structure, deamination can be detected by instrumental non-destructive inspection methods or by a tap test.

For Zone 2, examine the pitot probes, AOA sensors, static ports, and their surrounding areas for damage. Examine the flight control surfaces for signs of lightning-strike damage and perform necessary operational checks.

Logic flow for inspection of internal components in maintenance procedures provided by Boeing follow a similar process (see fig. Maintenance personnel should restore the original structural integrity, ultimate load strength, protective finish, and materials after a lightning strike.

In response to customer requests for training, Boeing has developed an SRM repair course to give maintenance technicians and engineers training in assessing and repairing airplane lightning-strike damage. Additional training on understanding lightning effects on airplanes and inspection instructions may be requested through the Boeing airlines representative.

Identify specific rework procedures for areas that are affected by lightning strikes. While Boeing airplanes incorporate extensive lightning-strike protection, lightning strikes can still affect airline operations and cause costly delays or service interruptions.

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1 pipedrive.readme.io - https://pipedrive.readme.io/docs/core-api-concepts-rate-limiting
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